Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences

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2020 | January-March | Volume 5 | Issue 1

EDITORIAL

Rasayana: An Endowment of Ancient Knowledge in Combating COVID-19 Pandemic

[Year:2020] [Month:January-March] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-5-1-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Original Article

Yogesh L Tamhankar, Archana P Gharote

Spectroscopic Analysis of Thermodynamic Changes in Shataputi Abhrak Bhasma at Various Stages of its Preparation

[Year:2020] [Month:January-March] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:12] [Pages No:1 - 12]

Keywords: Incinerations, Puta, Shataputi Abhrak Bhasma, Spectroscopic analysis, Thermodynamic

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0086  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: The science of Rasashastra needs to be upgraded with the help of technological advances of today\'s world, which shall open up new avenues for drug processing, development, and therapeutics in Ayurveda. Bhasma Kalpana is a widely used pharmaceutical form that demands exploration in view of the thermodynamic changes occurring in a closed system during incinerations. Shataputi Abhrak Bhasma encompassing a wide range of Putas was selected for assessing the quantum mechanical changes due to repeated incinerations. Aims and objectives: To analyze the effect of preparatory procedures on molecular structure, particle size, elemental assay, effect of rise in temperature on mass, and the percentage reflectance and absorbance of sunlight of Shataputi Abhrak Bhasma. Materials and methods: Shataputi Abhrak Bhasma was prepared in accordance to reference from Rasa Jala Nidhi. Shodhan was done with Nirvap in Godugdha and Maran was done with hundred Gajaputas adopting Bhavana with Gomutra. Abhrak Bhasma samples of various stages of incineration were subjected to advanced analytical tests like X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductive coupled plasma-atomic electron spectroscopy (ICP–AES), field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), and ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectroscopy (UV-Vis-IR) at the Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay. Results and conclusion: Advanced spectroscopic analytical tests revealed significant changes with increase in incinerations like complete destruction of the original compound, formation of newer compounds, significant change in the percentage of original elements, particle size reduction to the nanometer scale, thermal decomposition and recrystallization, and decrease in reflectance of sunlight. Clinical significance: The number of incinerations of a Bhasma is directly related to its therapeutic potential. Understanding the physical and chemical changes occurring at the molecular level of the Bhasma during incinerations highlighted the significance attached with the process of Maran. The study helped standardize and update the knowledge regarding differently incinerated Abhrak Bhasma and also explore the therapeutic potential of Shataputi Abhrak Bhasma that is regarded as a Rasayan.

Original Article

Santosh S Mane, Chinmay Rath, Bonthu Susmitha, Sugriv K Gaur, Joseph GV Ratna, Ashish K Tripathi, Mayur Y Kamble

Ethnomedicinal Knowledge among Nicobarese Tribes of Car Nicobar Island of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

[Year:2020] [Month:January-March] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:12] [Pages No:13 - 24]

Keywords: Car Nicobar, Folk healer, Herbal remedy, Nicobarese tribes

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0088  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Car Nicobar is a separate island and an administrative headquarter of Nicobar district. It is 260 km (162 miles) away from Port Blair, i.e., Capital of Andaman and Nicobar [(A and N) Union Territory] having a geographical area of 126.9 km2, i.e., 49.0 sq miles. The Nicobar group of islands is inhabited by the two mongoloid group of tribes, viz., the Nicobarese and the Shompens. They are the sole aboriginals in these islands, who continue to sustain themselves with vigor and vitality and have been flourishing as a vibrant ethnic group. Total population of Car Nicobar is 17,841 including 9,735 males and 8,106 females. They get healthcare facilities through Bishop John Richardson (BJR) District Hospital and subcenters of A and N administration but mostly believe in their traditional remedies for various diseases. Objectives: Documentation of the day-to-day ethnomedicinal practices followed by the Nicobarese tribe of Car Nicobar Island for healing various common ailments. Materials and methods: An ethnomedicinal survey was carried out from July to August 2015 in 15 villages of Car Nicobar Islands of A and N Islands to gather the information on ethnomedicinal practices of Nicobarese tribe of Car Nicobar Island. Observations: During the survey 54 plant species belonging to 54 genera and 30 families which were used as herbal remedies by Nicobarese folk healer of Car Nicobar Islands in 29 common ailments were recorded. Conclusion: The present study, represents some interesting data on potential medicinal plants used by the tribes of Car Nicobar, and the lead obtained from these plants must be screened to determine their therapeutic and pharmacodynamic properties.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Arjun Singh, Galib Ruknuddin, Sreedhar Bojja, Kartar S Dhiman

Evaluation of Quality Characteristics of Rasa-sindoor: An Ayurvedic Classical Rasa-aushadhi

[Year:2020] [Month:January-March] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:25 - 31]

Keywords: Gandhaka, Kupi Pakva procedure, Mercurial, Rasa-sindoor, Rasayoga, X-ray diffraction

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0084  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: The word Rasa-sindoor was first mentioned in Rasendra Chintamani. Rasa-sindoor is therapeutically very effective and being indicated in various diseases. It is a mercury- and sulfur-based Rasaushadhis (herbomineral/metallic preparations) prepared by the Kupi Pakva procedure. Here an attempt has been made to prepare and understand its chemical composition. Objective: To develop quality standards of Rasa-sindoor prepared as per the procedures mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics. Materials and methods: The equal quantities of purified mercury and sulfur were placed in a khalva yantra. The mixture was levigated homogeneously, until a black powder was formed. This was further levigated to obtain black, soft, lusterless fine powder like collyrium (kajjali). Then Bhavana with vatankura swaras was given and bhavita Kajjali was filed in kancha kupi. Finally, Rasa-sindoor was collected from the neck of the Kupi. Physicochemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) have been performed to ensure the chemical nature. Results: The chemical analysis revealed that Rasa-sindoor contains 81.7% of mercury and 14.7% of sulfur on average together with other minor elements. Particle size showed the presence of microfine particle. Rasa-sindoor is tri/hexagonal (α-form) form of mercury sulfide and the XRD of the three samples confirms this phase. Usually prepared by the Kupi Pakva procedure, the free sulfur (as is in kajjali) is completely absent in the formulation. Conclusion: The results of this study certainly can be utilized as baseline data for quality assurance of this herbomineral formulation. The preliminary profiles of Rasa-sindoor evaluated in this attempt could be used to lay down a new set of pharmacopoeial standards for further research studies.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sanjeev Kumar Lale, Ravi Chandra, Chinmay Rath, Anupam K Mangal, Soma N Murthy

Exploration of Medicinal Plants Described in Ayurveda of Shajapur Forest Division, Madhya Pradesh

[Year:2020] [Month:January-March] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:12] [Pages No:32 - 43]

Keywords: Ayurveda, Exploration, Madhya Pradesh, Medicinal plant, Shajapur forest division

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0087  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims and objectives: To explore and prepare records of the pharmaceutically important medicinal plants which are described in Ayurveda, from Shajapur forest divisions of Madhya Pradesh. Materials and methods: Exploration of Shajapur forest division was carried out in December 2018. During survey, the records of medicinal plants which are described in Ayurveda have been recorded with their GPS location and area in the division. Results: The exploration records of medicinal plants described in Ayurveda, with their GPS location and potential in the field have been recorded. The important medicinal plants, for example, are: Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa, Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr., Celastrus paniculatus Willd., Helicteres isora L., Holarrhena pubescens Wall.ex G.Don, Telosma pallida (Roxb.) W.G.Craib, Tectona grandis L.f., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm., Convolvulus prostratus Forssk., Maerua arenaria Hook. f. and Thomson, Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. Ex DC.) Wall. ex Guillem., Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub, Annona squamosa L., etc. In Shajapur, farmers mainly cultivated Citrus reticulata Blanco (Nagrang/Santara) medicinal plant having commercial value for fruits and ayurvedic industries. Conclusion: The study area is occupied by plants of Santalum album L., Holarrhena pubescens Wall.ex G.Don, Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm., Tectona grandis L.f., Carissa spinarum L., Convolvulus prostratus Forssk., and Vitex negundo L. for ayurvedic commercialization, whereas plants of Maerua arenaria Hook., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., etc., which are a rare habitat, so need conservation. Present study made an extensive exploration of Shajapur forest division for the first time by noting the geographical distribution of medicinal plants described in Ayurveda, which has not yet been recorded in the past.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Binod B Dora, Nagayya Shiddamallayya, Anjana Janardhanan, Gyati Anku, Tapashi Borah, Ashish K Tripathi, Chinmay Rath, Anupam K Mangal, Kartar S Dhiman

Traditional Healing Practices among the Indigenous People of Kumarghat, Unakoti District, Tripura

[Year:2020] [Month:January-March] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:13] [Pages No:44 - 56]

Keywords: Ayurveda, Folk claim, Local health tradition, Traditional healers, Tripura

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0092  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Tripura is a state with a rich biodiversity. Many rural and tribal communities of the Unakoti district of Tripura are depending on traditional systems for the treatment of ailments. The present work has been carried out to document the local health traditions (LHTs) with the help of traditional healers and uses of locally available medicinal plants. Materials and methods: Per- the Intramural Research (IMR) project (2018–19) allotted by the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), New Delhi, to Regional Ayurveda Research Institute (RARI), Itanagar, to conduct seasonal medico-ethno botanical survey (MEBS) in the forest subdivision of Kumarghat of Unakoti district, Tripura. The LHTs were documented by interviewing tribal healers of the rural area and collecting medicinal plant specimens and digital photograph of plants and healers have been carried out systematically and scientifically. Results and discussion: The MEBS team documented 50 folk claims with 13 compound and 37 single formulations of 53 plants from 13 tribal traditional healers in the study area. Single herbal formulations were validated for clinical importance with the classical Ayurvedic literature. Conclusion: The tribal and rural populace are benefiting from the home remedies in the management of ailments by using the plants available in the nearby forest area of their locality. Of the documented 50 traditional practices, few unique claims required further scientific validation for the benefit of humankind. Clinical significance: Of the documented 37 single herbal formulations, 7 claims vary in part use of the plant as generally mentioned in the classical text. It is noted that the use of different parts of the plant also having same indications as mentioned by the traditional healers, such as kokilaksha [Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Heine], apamarga (Achyranthes aspera L.), rama seethalika (Amaranthus tricolor L.), mathysakshi [Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC.], ulatkambal [Abroma augusta (L.) L.f.], and bimbee [Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt].

RESEARCH ARTICLE

YR Sanjaya Kumar, OS Lakshmi, N Thamizh Selvam, KG Vasanthakumar, Srikanth Ala, Sudesh N Gaidhani, G Kumara Swamy

Antidiabetic Activity of Ficus gibbosa Blume Extracts in Streptozotocin–Nicotinamide-induced Diabetes in Sprague Dawley Rats

[Year:2020] [Month:January-March] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:57 - 62]

Keywords: Antidiabetic, Ficus gibbosa Blume, Nicotinamide, Sprague Dawley rats, Streptozotocin

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0094  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Ficus gibbosa Blume (leaves and stem bark) in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Materials and methods: The animals were rendered diabetic by single intraperitoneal injections of nicotinamide (195 mg/kg body weight) followed by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg body weight). Induction of experimental diabetes was confirmed by blood glucose analysis. The test extracts were used at 3-dose levels viz., low dose (100 mg/kg body weight), average dose (250 mg/kg body weight and high dose (500 mg/kg body weight). Male Sprague Dawley rats were used in the experiment, each containing 6 animals. Oral glucose tolerance test was carried out 7 days post test extract administration at 3 doses. The diabetic animals were given the test extracts at different doses for a period of 5 weeks and blood sugar was evaluated at weekly intervals. Results: Both leaves and stem bark extracts of Ficus gibbosa Blume significantly reduced the elevated blood glucose levels at 60- and 120-minute postglucose overload. The test extracts showed significant antidiabetic activity against streptozotocin- and nicotinamide-induced diabetes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Conclusion: The extracts of Ficus gibbosa Blume showed significant antidiabetic activity against experimental type 2 diabetes in SD rats.

SHORT COMMUNICATION

Ashwin C Chiluveri, Sumeet Goel, BCS Rao, Rajeshwari Singh, Deepak Londhe, Shobhit Kumar, MM Sharma, Leena V Chhatre

Impact Assessment of Effectiveness, Acceptance and Usage of AYUSH Advisories and Measures in Prevention of COVID-19 through AYUSH Sanjivani Mobile Application

[Year:2020] [Month:January-March] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:63 - 66]

Keywords: AYUSH advocacies, AYUSH Sanjivani, COVID-19, Immune boosting measures, Mobile application

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0097  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Ministry of AYUSH deals with developing education, research, and propagation of indigenous traditional medicine systems in India, and in view of public health challenge posed by COVID-19, the ministry had issued preventive and prophylactic advisories. Results and discussion: The advisories issued by Ministry comprises interventions from different AYUSH systems of medicine for preventive health measures and also for boosting immunity during COVID-19 crisis. Further, the Ministry has undertaken study through AYUSH Sanjivani mobile app for generating data of large population with a target of 5 million people. Generation of data on effectiveness, acceptance, and usage of AYUSH advocacies and measures among the population and its impact in the prevention of COVID-19 are the core expected outcomes. Conclusion: The present short communication is related to the prophylactic advisories issued by Ministry of AYUSH and details of objectives and expected outcomes of AYUSH Sanjivani mobile application developed by AYUSH Ministry.