Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences

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2019 | October-December | Volume 4 | Issue 4

EDITORIAL

Prof. Vaidya K. S. Dhiman

Pharmacovigilance: Ancient Wisdom to Recent Initiatives

[Year:2019] [Month:October-December] [Volume:4] [Number:4] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-4-4-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Original Article

Dilip Kumar D Prajapati, Prashant Bedarkar

Shelf Life Evaluation of Shirishavaleha and its Granules: A Preliminary Study

[Year:2019] [Month:October-December] [Volume:4] [Number:4] [Pages:11] [Pages No:157 - 167]

Keywords: Accelerated stability, Khanda Sharkara, Shelf life, Shirishavaleha

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0081  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Shelf life is the length of time, after which all substances starts to degrade in their qualities and become unsuitable for consumption or sale. Every product has definite shelf life, which depends on various physical, chemical, environmental, and biological factors. Shelf life of various compound formulations was clarified in the classical text. So there is a need to revalidate and establish the shelf life of individual formulation. As the Government of India made it mandatory to display in the labels the shelf life of all products, it becomes essential to evaluate the actual shelf life of individual products by following the specified guidelines. Aim: To evaluate the shelf life of Shirishavaleha (SHA) and its granules prepared with Khanda Sharkara through accelerated stability parameters. Materials and methods: Physicochemical parameters of SHA and Shirishavaleha granules (SHG) were calculated by maintaining 40°C ± 2°C temperature and 75 ± 5% relative humidity at the intervals of 0, 1, 3, and 6 months. Based upon the observations, intercept, slope, 10% degradation of the sample, and finally the shelf life were calculated. Results: Accelerated stability study reveals the shelf life of SHA as 5.9 years, while that of the granules as 5.3 years. Similar Rf values obtained in high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of both samples initially and after 6 months showed minimum deterioration of the product. Microbial count and heavy metals were below the permissible limits in both the samples. Conclusion: Guidelines specified in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, mentions 3 years as the shelf life of Avalehas and granules. This time period is general, and different formulations may have different shelf lives based upon the factors such as their composition, etc. The samples tested in the current study, i.e., SHA and SHG, are found to have a shelf life of 5.9 and 5.3 years, respectively, through accelerated stability study that are almost double the average time specified in the guidelines.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Narayana Srikanth

Vasa (Justicia adhatoda L.) Leaves Best Procurement Time with Special Reference to Assay of Vasicine through HPLC and its Comparative Pharmacognosy

[Year:2019] [Month:October-December] [Volume:4] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:168 - 174]

Keywords: Best procurement time, High-performance liquid chromatography, Phytochemical studies

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0082  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Vasa (Justicia adhatoda L.) is a well-known plant for its medicinal properties, e.g., ailments of asthma, bronchitis, cough, dyspnea, external bleeding, etc. Different preparations of vasa are described in the Ayurvedic texts to pacify these disorders. In Ayurveda, the season of collection of its useful parts, i.e., leaves are not mentioned anywhere in the ancient texts. Since some research claim higher concentration of its active metabolite in winter and rainy season, therefore, it has been planned to evaluate the suitable time of collection of plant parts. Materials and methods: The leaves of vasa (Justicia adhatoda L.) were collected from the same habitat in all six seasons described in Ayurveda, i.e., shishir (Jan to Feb), vasant (Mar to Apr), grishm (May to June), varsha (Jul to Aug), sharad (Sept to Oct), and hemant (Nov to Dec). The source of the collected plant materials was authenticated at Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, RARI Jhansi, India, through the herbarium (accession no. 23595). Identification, comparative macroscopic, and microscopic along with powder microscopy of the leaves of the plant in each season were carried out besides extraction of various solvents such as alcohol, hydroalcohol, and methanol though Soxhlet and its comparative quantitative analysis for the extracted material in all six seasons through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the different seasons. Results: Pharmacognostical characteristics remain the same in all seasons, while the selected marker compound vasicine varied in quantity in each season. Extractive value was found maximum, i.e., 1.3456 g in vasant ritu sample and also evident in the quantitative HPLC estimation for the abundant vasicine in vasant ritu sample, i.e., 0.7330 to 1.0744 which is the clear indication for the best time to collect leaves in vasant ritu. Conclusion: In vasant ritu, vasa (Justicia adhatoda L.) is in flowering stage, and at this stage the abundance of the secondary metabolites and the extractive values clearly indicate to conclude that the suitable procurement time of collection of vasa leaves (Justicia adhatoda L.) is vasant ritu (Mar to Apr).

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anupam Mangal

Exploration of Medicinal Plants of Hoshangabad Forest Division (Territorial), Madhya Pradesh, with Special Reference to Ayurveda

[Year:2019] [Month:October-December] [Volume:4] [Number:4] [Pages:10] [Pages No:175 - 184]

Keywords: Ayurveda, Hoshangabad forest division, Madhya Pradesh, Medicinal plant, Territorial exploration

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0085  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims and objectives: The present study deals with the important medicinal plants described in Ayurveda from Hoshangabad forest divisions of Madhya Pradesh. In July 2018, Hoshangabad forest division was explored. The study was conducted to prepare records of medicinal plants that deal with Ayurveda system with additional information such as the locality, botanical name, Sanskrit name, local name, and the GPS location in the study areas. Materials and methods: The medicinal plants described in Ayurveda with its GPS location and potential in the field has been recorded. Results: The important medicinal plants that are used in the Ayurvedic system like Adiantum lunulatum Burm. f., Anogessus latifolia (Roxb. Ex DC.) Wall. Ex Guillem. and Perr., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Boerhavia diffusa L., Dioscorea bulbifera L., Enicostema axillare subsp. Littorale (Blume) A. Raynal, Gardenia latifolia Aiton, etc. Conclusion: Hoshangabad forest division of Madhya Pradesh is very rich in medicinal plants. Some important species of medicinal plants described in Ayurveda text grow in abundance, such as Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa, Crinum latifolium L., Curculigo orchioides Gaertn., Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC., Drimia indica (Roxb.) Jessop, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L., Strychnos potatorum L.f., Ventilago denticulata Willd., whereas plants of Aristolochia indica L., Argyreia sericea Dalzell, Holostemma ada-kodien Schult., Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob., Nervilia concolor (Blume) Schltr., Uraria picta (Jacq.) DC., etc., are rare in the habitat.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

T Borah

Medicinal Plants in Local Health Traditions (LHTs): Dharmanagar Sub-division, Tripura, India

[Year:2019] [Month:October-December] [Volume:4] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:185 - 191]

Keywords: Dharmanagar, Folk claim, MEB survey, Traditional, Tripura

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0089  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Tripura is a small state of the northeastern part of India. The floral biodiversity is playing an important role in the traditional system of treatment in tribal and rural population. The research pertaining to the use of medicinal plants in ethnomedico botany and formulations of study area is limited. The Medico Ethno Botanical Survey (MEBS) team of Regional Ayurveda Research Institute (RARI), Itanagar, documented the local health traditions (LHTs) from traditional healers of rural and tribal pockets of Dharamanagar sub-division, North district, Tripura. Materials and methods: The MEBS has been conducted in tribal pockets and villages of Dharamanagar Range, Damchera Range, and Panisagar Ranges of Dharmanagar sub-division of Forest, North Tripura district, Tripura. Local health traditions (LHTs) were documented through discussion and interview with traditional healers in the prescribed format along with global positioning system (GPS) location and digital photography of healer and plant raw drugs used in the traditional medicine and also prepared formulations. Medicinal plants were identified by using local and regional flora followed by processing, mounting, and preservation. Documented information has been processed for scientific validation and Ayurvedic names were provided to medicinal plants. Results and discussion: The MEBS conducted and documented six folk claims with six medicinal plants in prescribed formats to conserve traditional knowledge. The data presented systematically as botanical name, family, Sanskrit name, part used, morphological description of the plant, method of formulation, indication, and information of folk healer. Conclusion: Folk healers of Dharmanagar sub division, Tripura collects and use medicinal plants from surrounding area in the treatment of Sarpa Danstra (snake bite), Kamala (jaundice), Stanyajanan (galactagogue), Udarasula (acute abdomen), Alpamutrata (oliguria), and Vrana (fresh wound) popularly. Further, scientific validation is required to understand the useful therapeutic benefits and large-scale medicine production for the treatment. Clinical significance: The MEBS team noticed that some medicinal plants are used in the treatment of human diseases, such as Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. in snake bite, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in jaundice, Euphorbia herita L. in galactagogue, Scoparia dulcis L. in acute abdomen, Sida acuta Burm. f. for oliguria, and Mikania micrantha Kunth for fresh wound. These plants need to be studied in detail in order to harvest the maximum benefit for the mankind.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Shyam B Prasad

Development and Standardization of Chaturbhadra Kvath Churna: An Ayurvedic Formulation

[Year:2019] [Month:October-December] [Volume:4] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:192 - 198]

Keywords: Chaturbhadra Kvath Churna, Pharmacognosy, Standard operating procedure, Standardization, Thin layer chromatography

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0090  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The present study aims to develop pharmacognostical standards, the standard operating procedure (SOP), and analytical profiling including the physicochemical analysis of Chaturbhadra Kvath Churna, an Ayurvedic formulation. Materials and methods: The pharmacognostical (macroscopy, microscopy, and powder drug analysis), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), quantitative physicochemical analysis including loss on drying, alcohol- and water-soluble extractive values, total acid-insoluble ash and pH value were performed as per the standard procedures described in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API). The microbial limit, aflatoxins, heavy metals, and pesticide residues were also determined. Results and discussion: Chaturbhadra Kvath Churna is greyish-brown color with slightly pungent taste. The powder microscopy revealed the presence of hexagonal thin-walled/polygonal/wavy-walled polygonal/stratified cork cells, crystalloid fiber of phloem, unicellular warty trichomes, bordered-pitted/annular/spiral vessels, nonlignified spindle-shaped fibers, stone cells, brown matter, prism-shaped calcium oxalate crystals, volatile oils, and free and compound types of starch grains. The TLC fingerprint was developed using hexane: ethyl acetate: formic acid (4:5:1) as a solvent system. The standardized limits of the physicochemical parameters, microbial count, aflatoxins, heavy metals, and pesticide residues were also laid down. Conclusion: This is the first ever attempt made in order to develop the SOP and standardized specifications of Chaturbhadra Kvath Churna. Thus, the present study would be useful as the standardized reference protocol for the identification and standardization of this formulation.

REVIEW ARTICLE

A Critical Review on Aśvavaidyakanighantu: A Lexicon Portion of the Jayadatta's Text on Horse Diseases

[Year:2019] [Month:October-December] [Volume:4] [Number:4] [Pages:13] [Pages No:199 - 211]

Keywords: Aśvavaidyakam, Critical review, Horse diseases, Jayadatta, Literature review, Nighantu, Veterinary

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0080  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Critical review and botanical identification of drugs mentioned in the lexicon portion of the Jayadatta\'s text on horse diseases. Identify new synonyms of the drugs that are not mentioned in classical lexicons such as Bhāvaprakāśa, Kaiyyadeva, Madanapāla, Dhanvantari, etc. Background: Aśvavaidyakanighantu is part of the text “Aśvavaidyakam” written by Jayadatta. It was mentioned as a separate chapter for a better understanding of the treatment part of “Aśvavaidyakam.” “Aśvavaidyakam” is a complete text on horses, which includes anatomy, auspicious and inauspicious characters, factors denoting age and life span, birthplace of horses, riding, care of pregnant and after delivery, dosages of medicines, drugs used in the treatments, seasonal changes and their relation, alkali treatment, venesection, eye diseases, errhine therapy, oliation, fomentation, usage of oils, ghee, arishtha (fermented medications); diseases of face, head, ear, etc. Nighantu part is mentioned in the 12th chapter covering 174 important drugs used in horse diseases. Review results: One hundred and seventy-four important drugs used in the treatment of horse diseases were studied and their synonyms are highlighted. Critical notes on unique synonyms for this particular text are highlighted. All the drugs are botanically identified and a note has been given where the controversy prevailed. Conclusion: A critical study on various synonyms mentioned in this text and listing out the drugs are definitely supporting Ayurvedic veterinary medicine, Ayurvedic pharmacopeia in general and Ayurvedic veterinary pharmacopeia in particular. Clinical significance: The drugs mentioned in this article were used in various formulations to treat the diseases of the horse. Clinically these drugs have significance in treating the horse diseases. Further research on these drugs can enrich Ayurvedic veterinary pharmacopeia and find new treatment regimens in veterinary medicine.