Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences

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2019 | April–June | Volume 4 | Issue 2

EDITORIAL

Vaidya Kartar Singh Dhiman

Quality Control of Ayurvedic Medicines

[Year:2019] [Month:April–June] [Volume:4] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-4-2-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Venkata N Cheemalapati, Neelima Sharma, Anupam K Mangal, Prabhu Rekha, Naraynam Srikanth, Soma N Murthy

Evaluation of the Procurement Time of Kalmegh [Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees], through HPLC, Macro- and Microscopic Studies

[Year:2019] [Month:April–June] [Volume:4] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:47 - 55]

Keywords: Andrographis panniculata, Andrographolide, Authentication and pharmacognosy, High-performance liquid chromatography, Kalmegh, Procurement time, Seasonal variation

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0075  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: This study was conducted to validate the most suitable collection time for Kalmegh [Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees] by comparing the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) estimation of andrographolide in different seasons and pharmacognostical study of aerial parts of the plant. In Ayurvedic texts, procurement time of A. paniculata has not been mentioned; hence, this study was performed to validate the most suitable time of collection of the plant. Materials and methods: The aerial part of Kalmegh [Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees] was collected from the Regional Ayurveda Research Institute (RARI) garden from the same locations in the different seasons described in Ayurveda, i.e., Shishir or winter season (Jan to Feb), Vasant or spring season (Mar to Apr), Grishm or summer season (May to June), Varsha or rainy season (Jul to Aug), Sharad or autumn season (Sept to Oct), and Hemant or early winter season (Nov to Dec). The source of the collected plant materials was authenticated at National Vrkshayurveda Research Institute (NVARI), Jhansi Herbarium acronym code “JHS” (Accession no. 23598). Identification, comparative macroscopic and microscopic along with powder microscopy, of the aerial parts of A. panniculata in each season was carried out, in addition to the extraction of different solvents such as methanol, alcohol, and hydroalcoholic through Soxhlet, and its comparative quantitative analysis of the extracted material in all six seasons through HPLC for the different seasons at Captain Srinivas Murthy Regional Ayurveda Drug Development Institute, Chennai. Results: Extractive value of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees was found to be maximum, i.e., 1.3787 g (27.57%) of Varsha Ritu sample in methanol extract. The marker compound, andrographolide is high, i.e., 2.0312 to 2.2093 (% w/w) in Varsha ritu, through the HPLC analysis. The drug shows floral parts, i.e., pollen grains, epidermis of petals, fragments of trichome from the anthers in powder microscopy in Shishir, Sharad, and Hemant Ritu samples, whereas in Vasant, Grishm, and Varsha Ritu are devoid of floral parts. Conclusion: The study finds that the best procurement season for A. paniculata Nees. is Varsha Ritu for better therapeutic results in terms of assay of andrographolide.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Manosi Das, Avijit Banerji, Swaswati Roy, Jayram Hazra

Phytochemical Screening and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Fingerprinting Profiles of Shigru (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Leaves from Tanzania and India

[Year:2019] [Month:April–June] [Volume:4] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:56 - 60]

Keywords: Chemical constituents, High performance thin layer chromatography, Methanol extract, Moringa oleifera, Phytochemicals

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0066  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Shigru or Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is a very useful medicinal plant in folklore medicines of Africa and Asia for the treatment of diseases like ulcers, wounds, inflammation, heart problem, stroke, obesity, anemia, and liver damage. Moreover, the plant leaves are very good supplements for malnutrition and are also used as an antimicrobial agent. The present work was carried out for assessment of physicochemical constants screening of phytochemicals and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of the plant samples. Materials and methods: The crude powders of M. oleifera leaves of two varieties, collected from India and Tanzania, were subjected to the physicochemical analysis. The methanolic extracts of the respective leaves were subjected to phytochemical screening to determine the classes of phytoconstituents present and generate HPTLC fingerprinting profiles. Results: Phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, and proteins in both the varieties, but in different concentrations. The HPTLC finger printing profile of the methanolic extract of the M. oleifera leaves collected from Tanzania showed more number of bands with higher concentrations as compared to that of the Indian variety. Conclusion: This research article compares the physicochemical and phytochemical parameters as well as HPTLC profiles of the leaves of the two designated M. oleifera varieties. Besides the importance for authenticating the plant samples, the present results also show that both the varieties can be used as herbal drugs for different purposes.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Nagayya Shiddamallayya, Rama R Vendrapati, Sanjay K Giri, Shashidhar H Doddamani, Malalur N Shubhashree, Sulochana Bhat, Chinmay Rath, Bonthu Susmitha, Ashish K Tripathi, Anupam K Mangal, Kartar S Dhiman

Local Health Traditional Practices of Koppal District, Karnataka, India

[Year:2019] [Month:April–June] [Volume:4] [Number:2] [Pages:11] [Pages No:61 - 71]

Keywords: Ethnomedicobotanical survey, Folk healers, Koppal, Medicinal plants, Traditional healing

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0063  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The present study is to document the information on local health traditions used for various human and animal diseases by traditional healers of Koppal district, Karnataka, India. Materials and methods: Seasonal ethnomedicobotanical (EMB) Survey has been conducted in Koppal district Karnataka during 2013 to 2014 to document the local health traditions (LHTs) knowledge related to human and animal. Results: The EMB survey team documented 24 LHTs claims in Koppal district, Karnataka, which were related to joint pains, bone fracture, psychiatry, gastrointestinal disorders, skin disease, hemorrhoids, diabetics, aphrodisiac, infections, eye disease, neurological disorders, gynecological disorders, jaundice, migraine, and inducing of vomiting in human beings and few veterinary practices such as diarrhea, loss of appetite, stomatitis, and bone fracture. Conclusion: Traditional healers are sheltered in the remote rural and tribal pockets. This is the time to identify effective formulations to manage or treat human ailments and spread the awareness in public for use. Scientific society has to work to introduce modern techniques in traditional system, identify unique properties that are playing very important role in the treatment of health issues, and validate scientifically and recommend the formulations for large-scale production by pharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the common people.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Amit K Dixit, Vijay Kumar, Neha Maloni, Mrinmoy Sarkar, Bhavana Shrivastava, Dara S Rotwar, Pallavi Mundada

Comparative Assessment of Phytochemicals, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Potential of Stem Bark and Small Branches of Buchanania cochinchinensis (Lour.) MR Almeida for Substitution in Ayurvedic Drugs

[Year:2019] [Month:April–June] [Volume:4] [Number:2] [Pages:12] [Pages No:72 - 83]

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Buchanania, Medicinal plants, Natural products, Phytochemicals

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0069  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Present study was intended to investigate the physicochemical parameters, phytochemical constituents, and biochemical studies of the stem bark (STB) and small branches (SBs) of Buchanania cochinchinensis (Lour.) MR Almeida. Materials and methods: The parameters were checked in different solvent systems, viz., petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. Results: Significant antioxidant (10–85%) and antimicrobial (5–20 mm) activities were observed in acetone and methanolic extracts of STB and SB as compared to the controls. In acetone and methanolic extracts, the observed values for total phenol content (TPC) ranged from 10 mg to 93 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract and the total flavonoid content (TFC) ranged from 30 mg to 87 mg of quercetin equivalent (QE) per gram of extract. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein interaction studies of all the extracts were performed and the observed values for binding constant ranged from 22 to 62 × 10− 5 μM− 1. Conclusion: Overall, acetone and methanolic extracts of STB and SB of plant have shown significant results in medicinal aspects mentioned above. Clinical significance: These comparative findings of STB and SB of Buchanania cochinchinensis (Lour.) MR Almeida provide undeniable systematic facts of its beneficial prospective as an Ayurvedic drug.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Manajit Bora, Bhavana Srivastava, Sudesh N Gaidhani, Himanshu Sharma, Manish K Gautam, Rajesh K Tiwari, Manish M Wanjari, Jayram Hazra

Development of a Novel Polyherbal Formulation for Augmenting Milk Production in Healthy Dairy Cows

[Year:2019] [Month:April–June] [Volume:4] [Number:2] [Pages:11] [Pages No:84 - 94]

Keywords: Dairy, Galactagogue, High performance thin layer chromatography, Polyherbal formulation, Standardization

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0064  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The study was designed to develop and standardize a novel polyherbal formulation (PHF) for augmenting milk production in healthy dairy cattle. Materials and methods: Five raw plant drugs, viz., tubers of Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Shatavari), whole plant of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. (Bhringraj), seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methika), fruits of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Mishreya.), and Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Fleming (Shatapushpa) were used to prepare hydroalcoholic extracts using the Soxhlet method. Three in-house batches of PHF were prepared and standardized as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) methods. Pharmacognostic authentication and chemical identification were done by macroscopic and microscopic studies, phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis, and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting. The safety studies of galactagogue preparation were performed through heavy metals, microbial contamination, aflatoxins, and pesticide residue analysis. Results: Organoleptic studies revealed that all the batches appeared as semisolid in nature, blackish-brown in color, with a pleasant odor and slight bitter taste. Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of similar secondary metabolites in the different batches of both raw drugs and PHF. Physicochemical analysis and HPTLC fingerprints at different illuminations showed that all three batches were uniformly composed and complied the pharmacopeial limits. Results of safety parameters advocated that all the three batches were safe and complied as per the WHO and API guidelines. Conclusion: The present work first claims the standardization of this unique, cost-effective, nonhormonal, Ayurvedic galactagogue in-house preparation, i.e., PHF for augmenting milk yield in dairy herd. It proves that all the three batches have similar characteristics and uniformly composed. It serves as a reference for identification and distinguishing the galactagogue herbs.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Vishal Kumar, Yashika Bidhuri, Tanuja Nesari, Rahul Sherkhane, Shivani Ghildiyal

A Critical Analysis of Medohara, Lekhana, and Karshana Plants from Nighantus: A Way Forward to Combat Obesity

[Year:2019] [Month:April–June] [Volume:4] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:95 - 102]

Keywords: Ayurveda, Karshana, Lekhana, Medohara, Nighantu

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0062  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To compile and critically analyze the Medohara, Lekhana and Karshana drugs mentioned in Nighantus with special reference to the management of obesity with promising results. Background: Due to sedentary lifestyle and unwholesome food habits there is an ascending graph of obesity in India and worldwide. Although contemporary science has made efforts to cope up with this alarming rise but the results are not promising. Thus, the world is looking towards ancient healing science of Ayurveda to combat the situation. Ayurvedic classics and Nighantus are the wealth of herbal drugs and dosage forms. The drugs ascribed under the heading of Medohara, Lekhana and Karshana Dravyas in Ayurveda may have anti-obesity activity. The rational use of these time tested herbs may be the answer for the management of obesity. Earlier number of studies were carried out on anti-obesity drugs described in Brihat trayi. However, the data of anti-obesity drugs described in Nighantus is not available till date. Thus, the review was conducted by reviewing the popular available Nighantus i.e. Dhanvantari Nighantu (10th–13th Centuries), Sodhala Nighantu (12th century), Madanapala Nighantu (14th century), Kaiyadeva Nighantu (15th century), Bhavaprakasha Nighantu (16th century), Raj Nighantu (17th century) and Priya Nighantu (20th century). Review results: A total of 72 drugs were found having Medohara, Lekhana and Karshaniya effect in the Nighantus database. Conclusion: Pharmacodynamic attributes i.e. Rasa, Guna and Veerya have individual effect in obesity. Katu Vipaka is having more significant influence in producing Medohara, Lekhana and Karshana karma which is important for management of obesity. Clinical significance: These drugs can be validated for their anti-obesity or anti-hypolipidimic activities on the basis of preclinical and clinical studies. It will also help in selection of drugs for the management of obesity.