Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences

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2018 | October-December | Volume 3 | Issue 4

EDITORIAL

Systematic Documentation and Validation of Local Health Traditions (LHTs) and Ethno-Medical Practices (EMPs) through a National Strategy for Centralized Coordinated Work

[Year:2018] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-3-4-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Original Article

Rekha B Nirawane

Effect of Gibberellic Acid Treatment on Seed Germination of Kantakari (Solanum virginianum L.)

[Year:2018] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:11] [Pages No:195 - 205]

Keywords: Germination, Germination count, Gibberellic acid, Kantakari, Vigor index

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0057  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Solanum virginianum L., an important medicinal plant used in Dashmoolarishtha, belongs to the Laghoopanchamoola group. It is also used in various Ayurvedic formulations. It is reported as rare and endangered species in some parts of India. To fulfil the raw drug demand of the market, it is necessary to increase its production on a large scale. Materials and methods: Mature plants were collected, identified, authenticated and herbarium specimens preserved in herbarium section of the institute. Mature seeds were subjected to various treatments like hot water, sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3). Result: Data obtained from the experiments indicated that the pre-sowing treatment with GA3 was effective in breaking seed dormancy as compared to the treatments with hot water and conc. sulfuric acid. Conclusion: Seed germination of S. virginianum L. could be achieved irrespective of the season by treating seeds with GA3.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Evaluation of the Best Procurement Time for Ashwagandha [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal] Root by Liquid Chromatographic and Pharmacognostical Studies

[Year:2018] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:206 - 213]

Keywords: Ashwagandha, Authentication and pharmacognosy, Best procurement time, HPLC, Seasonal variation, Withanolide A

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0053  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The present study was undertaken to establish the best procurement time for collection of Ashwagandha [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal] root by analyzing the variation in bioactive secondary metabolite during six seasons by quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and comparative pharmacognosy by taking into consideration the Ayurvedic literature. In Ayurveda, Sharad ritu has been prescribed for procurement of crude drugs. But the description for procurement of useful part of individual plants is not mentioned anywhere in the literature. Therefore, to establish the best time for collection, the present study has been taken up. Materials and methods: To establish the best time for collection, Ashwagandha root was collected from the same habitat in all six seasons described in Ayurveda: i.e., Shishir (January-February), Vasant (March-April), Grishm (May-June), Varsha (July-August), Sharad (September-October), and Hemant (November-December). Authentication of the source of collected plant was carried out in the herbarium NVARI, Jhansi. Identification and authentication of the collected plant material through macro-, micro-, and powder microscopic studies were carried out besides extraction and its quantitative HPLC evaluation for the best procurement time for all six seasons. Results: The present study showed that internal microscopical features remain the same throughout the year, although a variation was observed in extractive values and selective marker compound. Withanolide A was taken as a selected marker compound and was quantified in samples collected in each season by HPLC. An extractive value was found to be maximum at 0.77 g in the sample collected in Sharad ritu for methanol extract. HPLC estimation showed that the abundance of Withanolide A is more up to 0.183% in the Hemant ritu sample among all seasons.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Switu V Jani, Harisha C Rudrappa, Vinay J Shukla

Pharmacognostical, DNA Barcoding, and Phytochemical Analysis on Leaves of Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem

[Year:2018] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:14] [Pages No:214 - 227]

Keywords: Anukta dravya, Hanshia dabar, Hastikarna palasa, Leaf, Leea macrophylla

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0054  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Hanshia dabar or hatkhan is one of the folklore plants of Odisha, which has been identified as Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem. of the family Vitaceae. Traditionally, its leaves are claimed to be used in the treatment of cancer. Pharmacognostical evaluation of various parts of the plants has not been reported. The present study has been designed to carry out detailed macro- and microscopic, physiochemical, and phytochemical aspects of leaves of L. macrophylla. Materials and methods: The fresh leaves, collected from Gandhamardan hills, Odisha, during the month of September 2016 were examined for its pharmacognostical characters and physicochemical, qualitative analysis, and HPTLC studies were done following the standard protocols recommended by the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Results: Leaves are compound, unipinnate, leaflets two pairs, and one terminal with short petiolule. Transverse section of rachis resembles the anatomy of stem and that of petiolule is somewhat deeply lobed heart shaped, section passing through midrib resembles inverted bell shape with two wings, one anterior and other posterior both ending with tapering ends. Leaf powder is greenish in color and microscopy reveals the presence of paracytic stomata. The plant is identified as L. macrophylla based on sequence homology and phylogenic analysis. Loss on drying is 7.39 ± 1.26, and qualitative results show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins, and HPTLC profile shows 6, 6, and 5 spots at short UV, long UV, and visible light, respectively. Conclusion: Leea macrophylla is a shrub with unipinnate compound leaves, and the leaflets possess 5-7 nerves arising from petiolule. Microscopic typical features of leaves belonging to genus Leea are the presence of raphides sacs, secretory cells, acicular crystals, and warty trichomes. The results obtained from the phytochemical study will be helpful in the determination of strength of purity and also for further standardization of the plant.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Rajesh Bolleddu, Sama Venkatesh, Bhargav Bhongiri, Subhose Varanasi

Establishment of Quality Parameters for Flowers of Karanja [Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre] through Powder Microscopy and Phytochemical Studies

[Year:2018] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:228 - 233]

Keywords: Fluorescence analysis, Karanja flowers, Phytochemical analysis, Powder microscopy.

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0056  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Karanja (Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre), generally known as “Indian beech,” is a plant of high medicinal importance, possessing several beneficial effects such as antimicrobial, wound healing, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, gastroprotective, and neuroprotective, which is widely used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Aim: The aim of this study is to establish the pharmacognostical and physicochemical standards for flowers of an ayurvedic plant, Karanja. Materials and methods: Pharmacognostical analysis was done by morphological, macroscopical, and powder microscopy. Physicochemical standards were established by ash values, extractive values, phytochemical screening, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. Results and conclusion: Flower powder microscopy shows diagnostic characters like unicellular trichomes of different sizes and triangular-shaped pollen grains. Loss on drying value of flower powder was 9.7% w/w. Total ash values of drug were found to be 6.15% and acid insoluble ash 0.3% w/w with respect to air-dried crude drug. Water soluble and alcohol-soluble extractives were found to be 25.5 and 6.37% w/w, respectively. Phytochemical characterization of alcoholic extracts revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and steroids. Aqueous extract revealed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, and saponins. Various powder microscopical and phytochemical studies observed in this study can serve as a valuable tool for the authentication of Karanja flowers.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Shreshtha Kaushik, Rohit Singh, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati

Safety Concerns on Ayurvedic Herbomineral Formulations—Myth or Reality?

[Year:2018] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:234 - 241]

Keywords: Herbomineral formulations, Metals, Multicentric studies, Safety, Toxicity

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0055  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Ayurveda, systematically evolved science of the universe, focuses on preventing, preserving health, and curing diseases in a comprehensive way. This heritage is survived through the ages and Ministry of Ayurvedic, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) took a number of initiatives to showcase its usefulness at global levels. Exclusive and extensive use of various metals and minerals in therapeutics is an integral part in Ayurveda. But, safety and toxicity concerns in the past couple of decades opened debates in conventional community, which attempted to malign the glory of Ayurveda. Aim: The aim of this study is to review classical concepts and published researches on metallic formulations and generate evidences inferring the effectiveness and safety of Ayurveda interventions in different pathologies. Results: Classical Ayurveda texts are filled with comprehensive information pertaining to drug collection, storage and preservation methods, standards of raw materials, standard operative procedures for different dosage forms, quality control aspects for finished products, shelf life, posology, safety, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) on inappropriate use of medicines and their management, concurrent diet advices, etc., to avoid possible ill effects. It infers that the seers were well studied about good collection practices (GCPs), good storage practices (GSPs), good manufacturing processes (GMPs), therapeutic use of such formulations, good dispensing practices (GDPs), good agricultural and collection practices (GACPs), etc., and took maximum care in the management of diseases. To substantiate classical concepts, a good number of studies on herbomineral and metallic formulations have been conducted that have proven their safety and efficacy. Conclusion: It can be said that rational use of Ayurvedic formulations is well established before the period of Charaka Samhita, more than 5,000 BC. All the safety and efficacy concerns raised in the recent past are possibly some part of conspiracy that needs to be addressed systematically.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Meena S Deogade, Shivarama P Kethamakka

Critical Review of Controversial Herbs of Surasadi gana Mentioned in Sushruta Samhita

[Year:2018] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:10] [Pages No:242 - 251]

Keywords: Ayurveda, Controversial herbs, Dravyaguna, Sandigdha dravya, Surasadi gana

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0058  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Medicinal plant controversy either in identification or accompanied usage of nomenclature disturbs the quality of formulation and practices. Common controversies (Sandigdhata) cause misinterpretations for the identification of plants as the description is present in Sanskrit. Fifteen herbs of Surasadi gana of Sushruta are either in a state of controversy or have doubtful identity. Materials and methods: To resolve the controversy, the PRISMA model of data collection is undertaken. Nomenclature and morphological characters of controversial Surasadi gana herbs were collected from different texts. Observation and results: All fifteen herbs of controversy are determined to possible extent based on the methodology used in the study. Conclusion: The controversies of Surasadi gana herbs are clarified through synonyms and morphological characters to its botanical identity. In addition, necessary revalidations of these herbs with their therapeutic values need to be studied further.

SHORT COMMUNICATION

Arjun Singh

Quality and Safety Studies of Metal and Mineral-based Ayurveda Formulations under Golden Triangle Project (GTP) Initiative: A Short Appraisal

[Year:2018] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:252 - 253]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0060  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

SHORT COMMUNICATION

Chinmay Rath

CCRAS Policy for Commercialization of Technologies: A Short Appraisal

[Year:2018] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:254 - 257]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0059  |  Open Access |  How to cite  |