Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences

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2018 | July-September | Volume 3 | Issue 3

EDITORIAL

Protection of Intellectual Property Rights and Commercialization of Technologies: CCRAS Initiatives

[Year:2018] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-3-3-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Original Article

Ruknuddin Galib, Poonam D Gulati

Physicochemical Profile and Shelf Life Estimation of Nishamalaki churna

[Year:2018] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:133 - 140]

Keywords: Ayurveda, Nishamalaki, Saviryataavadhi, Shelf life

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0046  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Context: With increasing popularity, the quality of medicines has become an important issue. Shelf life is an important component that is mandatory to be displayed on the label of all medicinal products. This is also applicable to Ayurveda; thus, it becomes essential to establish shelf life of formulations that are being marketed and used in therapeutics. The shelf life of Nishamalaki churna, a frequently used formulation for the management of diabetes, is not reported till date. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the shelf life of Nishamalaki churna through the accelerated stability study. Methods: Physicochemical parameters were measured at the temperature of 40 ± 2 °C and the relative humidity was 75 ± 5%. The analysis was repeated at the intervals of 1, 3, and 6 months, and the average 10% degradation time was calculated and extrapolated to find the shelf life. Results: Shelf life of Nishamalaki churna is found to be 3 years 7 months. Conclusion: The Gazette of Government of India prescribes a limit of 2 years as the shelf life for churnas (powdered formulations). The observations of the current study reveal that Nishamalaki churna is stable for a longer duration than the prescribed period of 2 years when stored appropriately in well-closed containers.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Devanjal Bora, Tushar Kanti Mandal

Local Health Traditions (LHTs)/Ethnomedical Practices (EMPs) for Sikkim: A Survey Report

[Year:2018] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:10] [Pages No:141 - 150]

Keywords: Health, Medicinal plant, Sikkim, Traditional, Tribal

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0047  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Sikkim state is endowed with rich plant biodiversity. Most of the tribal and rural populations following organic techniques for their livelihood depend on traditional systems for treatment of human ailments. The present work has been carried out to understand the local health traditions and use of common plants for treatment by rural populace of Sikkim. Materials and methods: The medico-ethno botanical survey was conducted by documenting the local health traditions by interviewing traditional healers of tribal and rural population and by collecting medicinal herb specimens and digital photography of herbs and healers for further process. Results: The medico-ethno botanical survey team documented a total of 20 folk claims with 18 medicinal plants used by traditional healers for ailments like wounds, cuts, bleeding, cough, fever, tonsils, sinusitis, migraine, pneumonia, breathing problems, jaundice, indigestion, burning sensation of stomach, constipation, piles, retention of urine, crack bone, dislocated bones, toothache, and ringworm. Conclusion: The tribal and rural population of Sikkim lives in remote rural areas with low income, and since it is difficult to afford modern medical treatment, local traditional healers use commonly available medicinal plants from nearby forests for the treatment of different ailments. It is high time to think and use common available medicinal plants in new formulations for treatment and to overcome the problem of substitutes and adulterations and also to conserve rare, threatened, and endangered medicinal plants.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Minautee R Patel, Sudipta Roy, CR Harisha, Vinay J Shukla

Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Exploration of Merremia aegyptia (L.) Urb. Leaf

[Year:2018] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:151 - 158]

Keywords: Convolvulaceae, HPTLC, Merremia aegyptia, panch pan ni fudardi, Ipomoea pentaphylla

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0048  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Merremia aegyptia (L.) Urb. belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. It is locally known as panch pan ni fudardi or Gariyavel by the people of Gujarat. Ethnomedicinally, leaves of M. aegyptia are claimed to be used in the management of shotha, vrana, etc. Though traditionally it is a well-known plant but no proper scientific evaluation of its pharmacognostical character and preliminary phytochemical analysis has been reported till date. Materials and method: The present study has been carried out to establish the standardization of leaf of the plant through its macro- and microscopical characters, physicochemical analysis, alkaloids, tannin, saponin and other qualitative tests, and chromatographic study per the standard procedure. Result and discussion: The macroscopic study showed that leaves are 12-15 cm in length, 10-12 cm in width, reticulate venation, and a petiole of 8-10 cm long. Leaves transverse section (TS) showed the presence of trichomes, collenchyma, and vascular bundles. Powder microscopy of the dried leaves showed the presence of paracytic stomata on the lower epidermis and unicellular trichomes of the epidermis, rosette, and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. The analytical study shows the presence of alkaloids, tannins, and carbohydrates. The high performance thin layer chrometography (HPTLC) study showed three spots at 254 nm and five spots at 366 nm. Conclusion: The observed data can be helpful to identify and standardize the leaf of M. aegyptia (L.) Urb.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Rajput Shivshankar, Shweta Mata, Ruknuddin Galib, Laxmipriya Dei

Shelf Life Evaluation and Comparative HPTLC Profile of Lekhaniya Mahakashaya Siddha Taila A Preliminary Assessment

[Year:2018] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:159 - 164]

Keywords: Accelerated stability study, Lekhaniya Mahakashaya Siddha Taila, Saviryata Avadhi, Shelf life

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0049  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Lekhaniya Mahakashaya Siddha Taila (LMST) is a herbal formulation containing 10 herbal drugs, i.e., Lekhaniya Mahakashaya Gana mentioned in the Charak Samhita Shadvirechana Shatashritiya chapter. This is an important formulation in Ayurveda therapeutics, but its shelf life is not evaluated till date. The Government of India Gazette specifies the shelf life of various Ayurvedic medicines. However, there is a need to revalidate the shelf life of individual formulations by following parameters prevalent in the respective scenario. Considering this, it is planned to evaluate the shelf life of LMST. Materials and methods: Taila was prepared following classical guidelines. The samples were subjected to the accelerated stability study maintaining temperature and humidity 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5%, respectively. Relevant analytical parameters were analyzed at an interval of 0, 1, 3, and 6 months to check the degradation levels in the formulation. The 10% degradation was set as the acceptable point to extrapolate the accelerated stability data. Real-time aging factors 5 and 3.3 were used for the extrapolation of shelf life for climatic zone I and II countries and climatic zone III and IV countries, respectively. India comes under climatic zones III and IV. The formula for the calculation of shelf life given in the manuscript and International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines are used for conducting the shelf life study. Results: The microbial contamination and heavy metals were found to be within the prescribed limits. There were insignificant changes in physicochemical profiles at different intervals. On extrapolation of the observations, the shelf life of Taila was found to be 4 years. Conclusion: The shelf life of LMST was found to be longer than the given standards in official Gazettes of Government of India. This observation may be exclusive to LMST. Studies on other Tailas need to be carried out to confirm this preliminary observation.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Neelima Sharma, Soma Narsimha Murthy, Pramila Pant, Ilavarsan Raju

Validation of the Best Procurement Season of Arjuna Bark [Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn.] by Comparative HPLC and Pharmacognostical Studies

[Year:2018] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:165 - 172]

Keywords: Arjuna, Authentication and pharmacognosy, Ayurveda, Best-procurement time, Ellagic acid, HPLC, Seasonal variation

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0050  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The present study was undertaken to establish the best procurement time for Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn.) by analyzing the seasonal variation in bioactive secondary metabolite in the bark with quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as well as comparative pharmacognosy by taking consideration of Ayurvedic literature. In Ayurveda, it is mentioned that for all the herbs, the best-suited procurement time is Sharad Ritu, especially for bark.1,2 Therefore, to validate the time of collection, the present study has been planned. Materials and methods: Arjuna bark from the same habitat in all six seasons described in Ayurveda, i.e., Shishir (January- February), Vasant (March-April), Grishma (May-June), Varsha (July-August), Sharad (September-October), and Hemant (November-December), has been collected. Authentication of the source of the collected plant material was done and the accession number was given by the herbarium of NVARI, Jhansi. Identification and comparative pharmacognosy in each season at the macroscopic and microscopic levels along with powder microscopy of the useful part of the plant per the standard procedures was done at NVARI Jhansi. The extraction of the economically important plant bark and the quantitative HPLC analysis of the extracted material in all six seasons and comparison of HPLC analysis of different seasons were carried out at Captain Srinivasa Murthy Research Institute of Ayurveda and Siddha Drug Development (CSMRIASDD), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Results: The present study showed that internal microscopical features remained the same throughout the year. A selected marker compound, ellagic acid, was quantified in each season by HPLC. The extractive value was found to be maximum, e.g., 1.7698 g of hydro-alcoholic extract in the Sharad Ritu sample. HPLC estimation showed that the abundance of ellagic acid is more in the Sharad Ritu sample, e.g., 0.0826 to 0.1103. Results indicated that a maximum concentration of bioactive secondary metabolite, i.e., ellagic acid, is in the Sharad Ritu sample. Conclusion: Findings suggest that if Arjuna [Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn.] barks are collected in Sharad Ritu, then it will provide better therapeutic results.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Tarun Sharma

Review on Ethnomedicinal Claims, Pharmacological Activity, and Phytochemical Constituents of Samarakhadyam (Byttneria herbacea Roxb.)

[Year:2018] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:173 - 180]

Keywords: Byttneria, Ethnobotany, Ethnomedicinal, Folklore, Samarakhadyam

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0051  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Byttneria herbacea Roxb., family Malvaceae, a branched herb with perennial woody rootstock, known as Samarakhadyam, is available in India. It has been provided with copious therapeutic claims in Indian traditional medical systems as some of them are well-documented as “ethnomedicinal uses”. Single handcompiled data on its ethnomedicinal uses are scarcely available. Materials and methods: In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate all available data from available 9 books and published 24 research articles. Result: It is found that there are almost 65 tribes in and around India who use either the whole plant of B. herbacea Roxb. or its different parts (leaves, roots, seeds, and stems) in 32 different disease conditions. Among these, maximum are indicated in the treatment of wounds, sprains, cuts, boils, cholera, leucorrhoea, etc., through internal and external applications. The phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, phenols, and flavonoids. B. herbacea Roxb. showed a broad range of pharmacological actions, such as antioxidant, anti-edemogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, and antitubercular activities. Conclusion: Easy availability of B. herbacea Roxb., with single hand information on its potential ethnomedicinal uses, may lead to new research on this plant.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Sneha D Borkar

Śākavarga;kadravya (Vegetables) as Pathya in Metabolic Disorders—A Review from Classical Texts of Āyurveda with Current Evidences

[Year:2018] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:13] [Pages No:181 - 193]

Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Nutraceuticals, Pathya, Śākavarga, Vegetables

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0052  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To review the vegetables mentioned as pathya for metabolic diseases like prameha/madhumeha, hrdroga, and sthaulya from 15 different classical texts and to analyze the available data critically with the help of reported research activities to establish their role in the prevention and management of metabolic disorders. Background: Metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial disorder, which can be prevented by changes in lifestyle and dietary habits. Among the preventive measures given for various disorders, the classical texts of Āyurveda describe all the vegetables along with their guna (properties), karma (action), and prayoga (indication) in different disease conditions under śākavarga. As diet is considered as the best preventive medicine, vegetables are indicated as pathya (wholesome diet) for metabolic diseases like prameha/madhumeha, hrdroga, and sthoulya, and can be used in the prevention and management of metabolic disorders. Review results: It is observed that among 318 vegetables mentioned in compiled texts, 29 vegetables are indicated in prameha/madhumeha and 33 vegetables are indicated in hrdroga. Majority of these vegetables are reported for their antidiabetic (18), anti-hyperlipidemia (14), cardio-protective (15), anti-hypertensive (7), and antiplatelet (5) activities. Conclusion: Vegetables mentioned under śākavarga in classical texts of Āyurveda can be effectively used as pathya in metabolic disorders. Clinical significance: On the basis of review results, further scientific studies can be planned clinically to evaluate the beneficial effects of these vegetables in clinical practice.