Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences

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2018 | June | Volume 3 | Issue 2

EDITORIAL

Ayurveda in Public Health: An Urgent Attention for Its Main Streaming

[Year:2018] [Month:June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jdras-3-2-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

Swapnil Chaudhari

Analytical Specifications of Tamra Bhasma

[Year:2018] [Month:June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:65 - 70]

Keywords: Amritikarana, Characterization, Copper, Standardization, Tamra bhasma

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0037  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: In Ayurveda, metals and minerals are converted into biocompatible forms through specified classical procedures like Shodhana, Marana, etc. before their therapeutic use. Their frequent use without any noticeable side effects since ages is the ultimate proof of safety. But, safety and toxicity concerns are being raised by conventional researchers considering the presence of heavy metals in them. Noncompliance of pharmaceutical procedures as described in Ayurvedic classics is one possible cause for toxicity. At the same time, no standard analytical profiles are available for many metallic preparations. Materials and methods: The present study aims to prepare and develop preliminary analytical profiles for Tamra bhasma (calcined copper) with and without Amritikarana on structural and elemental basis to address the role of the raw materials used during the preparation, compound form, nature and particle size of both samples. Results and conclusion: The study revealed that Tamra Bhasma contains copper in a nano-crystalline structure having standard mean diameter ~12.72 μ in Tamra bhasma without Amritikarana and ~8.83 μ in Amritikarana sample. Copper sulfide form (CuS) associated with elemental sulfur was found to be a structural component in both samples.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Ritu Sinha, Gajendra Rao

Micropropagation of Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso through Nodal Segment, Apical Bud and Cotyledon

[Year:2018] [Month:June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:71 - 76]

Keywords: Axillary bud, Cotyledon, Endangered, Micropropagation, Node, Rare, Trivrit

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0038  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To develop in vitro propagation protocol of a rare, vulnerable and endangered important medicinal plant Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso (Trivrit) through organogenesis. Materials and methods: Seeds collected from Institute\'s garden were pretreated and inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS)medium. Cotyledon, axillary bud and nodal segments of in vitro grown plants were used as explants. Explants were cultured on half MS, MS, whites plain medium and MS supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators viz., BAP, AS, Kn, NAA, IAA, IBA. Cultures were incubated at 22o C ± 2o C and 8 hours photoperiod with light intensity of 3000 lux. Observations were recorded at an interval of 15 to 25 days. Result: The average maximum number of shoots 19.72 ± 0.240 achieved on MS supplemented with BAP (3 mg/L). 100% root induction was obtained on half MS, MS, Whites medium alone and the combination of MS with 1 to 4 mg/L concentrations of NAA, IBA, IAA. In vitro developed plantlets were transferred in the pots; which were easily acclimatized and established in the soil. Conclusion: The developed micropropagation protocol is beneficial for the rapid proliferation of shoots and root. The protocol would be helpful for mass multiplication as well as to conserve the rare and endangered plant of Trivrit. Abbreviations: BAP: Benzyl amino purine; IAA- Indol-3- acetic acid; IBA-Indol-3-butyric acid; Kn-Kinetin; NAA-à-Naphthalene acetic acid; AS-Adenine sulfate; MS-Murashige and Skoog medium (1962).

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Maheshwari Balasundaram, Ajay K Meena, Ravindra Singh, Raju Ilavarasan

Comparative Evaluation of Thin-layer Chromatography/ High-performance Thin-layer Chromatography Fingerprint Profiles of Successive Extracts in Development of Standardization Protocol for Ayurvedic, Siddha or Unani Formulations

[Year:2018] [Month:June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:77 - 84]

Keywords: High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint, Phytochemicals, Polyherbal formulation, Standardization, Successive extracts, Trikatu churna

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0039  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Trikatu churna is an important and unique polyherbal formulation used for various therapeutic indications. The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the need to ensure the quality of medicinal plant products and herbal formulations by using any modern controlled techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is a frequently used technique to develop the chromatographic fingerprints. Therefore, the present study was carried out for quality evaluation of Trikatu churna through the development of standardization protocol with comparative HPTLC fingerprint profiles of successive extracts besides routine analysis. Materials and methods: Successive extracts of various solvents of polarity in increasing order through soxhlet apparatus for Trikatu churna and its authenticated raw materials were prepared; comparative chromatographic fingerprint profiles developed along with the evaluation of qualitative and quantitative tests parameters have been carried out by using the Ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectrophotometer, flame photometer, and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The following test parameters physicochemical parameters, evaluation of qualitative, quantitative phytochemicals such as total tannins, sugars and phenols, micronutrients such as sodium (Na), potassium (K); safety parameters such as microbial load, heavy metals and aflatoxins; comparative TLC and HPTLC fingerprint profiles of successive extracts of ingredients in increasing the polarity order of the solvents (n–hexane to alcohol) with respect to that of consecutive extracts of the final polyherbal formulation have been carried out for the quality evaluation. Conclusion: Trikatu churna was evaluated for its identity and purity by the systematic analysis of the above parameters for raw botanical ingredients and formulation in the course of development of standardization protocol for quality control.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Sinimol T Peethambaram, Susmitha Bonthu, Srikanth Narayanam

Exploration of Polyherbal Formulations Used by Folk Healers of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

[Year:2018] [Month:June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:11] [Pages No:85 - 95]

Keywords: Andaman and Nicobar, Folk healers, Polyherbal formulation, Tribes

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0040  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Various communities settled in Andaman and Nicobar Islands along with native tribes still possess a rich treasure of traditional medicinal knowledge. It is very necessary to document their indigenous knowledge of health and healthcare practices before they become used to the modern medicine and forgot to use native plants in their day-to-day practice. In the traditional system of medicine, plant-based medications are mostly used since time immemorial. This knowledge of the drug, drug preparations either from single or combination of numerous plants, i.e., poly herbalism orally descended from generations to generations uninterruptedly. Objectives: Documentation of the polyherbal (compound) formulations practiced by the native of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Materials and methods: The team of Regional Research Centre of Ayurveda, Port Blair conducted 23 periodical surveys visiting 75 different forest beats of Andaman and Nicobar Islands during 2013 to 2016, and local traditional folk healers were also interviewed as per the structured questionnaire based on ethno-medicinal survey protocol. Observations: Sixty-nine folklore claims related to compound formulation was registered during surveys; out of which maximum, i.e., 12 claims were for treatment of fever (Jwara) and 7 for pain in the abdomen (Udarashoola). The plants Annona squamosa L. and Senna occidentalis (L.) Link. Syn. Cassia occidentalis Link. were used as an ingredient in 12 formulations to cure a maximum number of ailments. Fresh leaves were mostly used in preparing the compound formulation (92.42%), and medicines were mostly used in the form of Swarasa (39.13%) and followed by Kalka (30.43%). Conclusion: Native folk healers of Andaman and Nicobar Islands are using a wide variety of Ayurvedic compound formulation so further well planned pharmacological, toxicological and clinical studies required to confirm the efficacy of these folklore claims to develop new formulations.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Goli P Pratap, Vaddi Meenakshi, Prince K Pal

Ethnomedicinal and Dietary Uses of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Asthishrinkhala) from the Tribes, Rural People and Traditional Healers of Andhra Pradesh, India

[Year:2018] [Month:June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:10] [Pages No:96 - 105]

Keywords: Cissus quadrangularis, Dietary uses, Ethnomedicinal uses

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0041  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims: To document and explore the ethnomedico botanical claims, folklore claims and dietary recipes of Cissus quadrangularis L. of Vitaceae family. Materials and methods: The study has aimed to review the 161 tribal individuals like traditional healers, tribal doctors and elder people in the field trips on their daily utilization of C. quadrangularis L. plant. The data were collected through conversation during the field trips. During the interviews, local names, useful plant parts, the method of preparation and dosage were recorded. The plants employed along C. quadrangularis L. were systematically identified by comparing with the assistance of related flora like “The Flora of Presidency of Madras” by Gamble (1936) and other related works. Results: The present study reveals 19 ethnomedical claims on C. quadrangularis L. collected from various tribal pockets of Andhra Pradesh and three dietary recipes from rural people residing in different habitats of Andhra Pradesh. Conclusion: With this investigation, it can be concluded that C. quadrangularis L. is an abundantly accessible restorative plant with an assortment of symptoms. It is utilized as a part of the bone recuperating agent in bone fractures by the tribes, conventional healers and additionally bolstered by traditional Ayurvedic literature by the name Asthishrinkhala. It is likewise a great dietary hotspot for bio calcium and bone wellbeing. Advance pharmacological, clinical and dietary investigations may divulge numerous esteems that are more helpful and exhibit as capable nourishing help in numerous more maladies including bone well being. Clinical significance: In Ayurvedic literature, it is mainly used in bone fractures, diseases of the eye, worm infestation, hemorrhoids, etc., diseases, some of the tribal claims support these indications some are unique and new like in constipation, dysmenorrhoea, etc. Along with stem some of the tribes are using its leaves, roots, etc. in different diseases. Pharmacological investigations on these claims can explore strategies for rendering new drugs to eradicate diseases clinically. Dishes prepared from C. quadrangularis L. may support as dietary supplements in clinical conditions like osteoporosis, osteopenia, etc. which needs further validation.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Folklore Plants from Kamakhya Hills Reserve Forest of Assam, India with their Ayurvedic Indications and Corroborated Pharmacological Activities

[Year:2018] [Month:June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:106 - 112]

Keywords: Assam, Ayurvedic indications, Ethnobotanical claims, Folklore plants, Medico-pharmacological activities

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0042  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The present communication deals with the report of Medico-ethnobotanical claims and folklore medicinal plants documented during the survey made to Kamakhya Hills Reserve Forest of Nagaon Forest Division situated in Central Assam region in South bank of the mighty river Brahmaputra. Materials and methods: Field surveys were conducted in the study area where four folk healers were interviewed for documentation of Medico-ethnobotanical information. The reported folklore plant specimens are collected, identified and preserved. Results: The reported folk claims involve 18 medicinal plants under 18 genera represented by 15 families. Corroborative Ayurvedic indications and reported pharmacological activities have been reviewed against documented folklore medicinal plants for further validation of folk claims. From the review, it is evident that there are total four plant species reported as the folk medicine of the region are not mentioned in any classical Ayurvedic texts as well as in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API). Among these, one plant species have come up with novel disease indications without having corroborative disease indications in Ayurvedic system of medicine as well as in reported pharmacological activities. Conclusion: Novel folklore plants are suggested for further validation and screening. Significance: Corroboration with Ayurvedic indication and reported pharmacological activities will validate the use of the folklore plant.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Rajarshi Biswas, Satyajyoti Kanjilal, Amitabha Dey, Supriya Mana, Bibhuti N Bhatt, Subrata Pandit, Pallabi Chakraborty, Deepa Gandhi, Ravi P Maurya, Avinash Narwaria, Subhasis Maity, Chandra K Katiyar

Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of an Ayurvedic Liniment Formulation

[Year:2018] [Month:June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:113 - 118]

Keywords: Ayurveda, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, Liniment, Taila

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0043  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The objective of these studies was to assess the antiinflammatory and analgesic activity claim of an Ayurvedic liniment (ZRL) formulation prepared basis the wisdom of classical formulations. Materials and methods: Carrageenan-induced paw edema was used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity. Analgesic activity was examined using hot plate method and tail flick method. The efficacy of the topically applied ZRL formulation was evaluated vis-à-vis control. Results: The percentage of reduction of paw volume after ZRL treatment and standard diclofenac Gel were 49.18 ± 2.12 and 81.79 ± 1.24 respectively. In Eddy\'s hot plate model, after a latency period of 2 hours following topical application of the ZRL formulation, there was a significant reduction (66%) to painful sensation compare to control. In tail flick method, 89% reduction to painful sensation was observed with respect to pretreatment. Conclusion: The present study provided a scientific justification for pain relief and management of inflammation, by showing its peripheral and central acting anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties Clinical significance: The present in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ZRL formulation showed its potential in the management of pain and inflammation associated with musculoskeletal disorders. The taila formulation is in clinical use for management of pain associated with musculoskeletal and neurological disorders.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mohammad A Khan, Mohd Urooj, Syed H Razvi, Munawwar H Kazmi, Gulam M Husain

Chronic Toxicity Evaluation of Majoon-e-Kundur: A Polyherbal Formulation

[Year:2018] [Month:June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:119 - 127]

Keywords: Majoon-e-Kundur (MK), Rat, Toxicity, Unani

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0044  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Majoon-e-Kundur (MK) is a compound Unani formulation used in Taqteer-ul-Baul (Dribbling of urine), Salasul- Baul (Urinary incontinence), Baul Filfarash (Nocturnal enuresis), Surat-e-Inzal (Premature ejaculation) and Zof-e-Masana (weakness of urinary bladder). However, toxicity studies on MK have not been carried out for its long-term use. Objective: The present study was carried out to study the 180 days repeated dose toxicity of MK in rats. Materials and methods: The study was carried out on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats of both sexes. Animals were divided into two groups (n = 15). MK was administered at a limit dose of 2000 mg/kg bw/day p.o. for 180 days. After completion of 180 days blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical analysis and animals were sacrificed, and organs were harvested for relative organ weight determination followed by histopathological evaluation. Results: Animals in groups treated with MK did not show any abnormal behavior or clinical signs indicative of systemic toxicity. There was no toxicologically significant alteration observed in body weight, feed intake, hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights and histopathological findings of control and MK treated rats of either sex. Conclusion: There were no toxicologically significant alterations with respect to clinical signs of toxicity, body weight gain and feed intake, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weight, gross necropsy and histopathological findings in MK treated rats at a dose of 2000 mg/kg bw as compared to control group. It may be concluded based on the above observations that MK is safe up to the limit dose tested in rats.

SHORT COMMUNICATION

Bhagwan S Sharma, Arjun Singh

Drug Development for Select Diseases: A Short Appraisal of CCRAS Contributions and R and D Initiatives

[Year:2018] [Month:June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:128 - 132]

Keywords: Anti-tubercular treatment, Chronic kidney diseases, Drug development

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0045  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) is actively involved in the scientific process of drug development adopting prevalent guidelines such as good clinical practices guidelines for Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani (ASU) drugs (GCP-ASU), Ministry of AYUSH and National ethical guidelines for Bio-medical Research (ICMR), WHO guidelines for traditional medicines, etc. Drug developed: Till date, 11 technologies have been developed and commercialized by transferring to the Industry through National Research Development Corporation (NRDC), Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India, for wider public utility including drugs for disease like AYUSH 82 for diabetes, AYUSH-64 for malaria, AYUSH SG for rheumatoid arthritis etc, also 17 drugs for RCH have been developed. Drug development under progress: Various new formulations like AYUSH manas for mental retardation/cognitive deficit, AYUSH QOL 2C for improving quality of life in cancer patients, AYUSH Rasayana (A and B) for Geriatric health, AYUSH C1 oil for wound healing, AYUSH PJ-7 for dengue, AYUSH M-3 for migraine, AYUSH SL for filariasis, AYUSH A for bronchial asthma, AYUSH D for Type II diabetes mellitus, carctol S for ovarian cancer, AYUSH K1 for chronic kidney diseases, AYUSH GMH for non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and AYUSH PTK for hepato-protection as adjuvant to anti tubercular treatment (ATT) have been taken up which are at different phases of drug development. Conclusion: Council is working towards drug development following scientific lines taking leads from LHTs and from classical Ayurveda texts to bring out scientifically validated medicine for use among masses in disease conditions of National importance and is committed to develop and provide treatment and prevention of emerging important lifestyle-related disease and other health requirements.