Aim: Allium sativum L. is a cultivated medicinal plant known as Rasona in Ayurveda. In Asian countries, leaves of Lasuna are widely used in food recipes and as remedy for cough, asthma, malarial fever, facial paralysis, cardiac disease, etc. It is reported to have high medicinal as well as nutritional value. Therefore, it is felt necessary to study the macroscopy, microscopy, histochemical, physicochemical, and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) parameters of leaf which are not reported earlier.
Materials and methods: Collected plant specimen was identified, authenticated, and preserved in the herbarium section of the Institute. Shade dried leaves were made into powder. Macroscopic, microscopic, and physicochemical parameters were performed as per the standard procedures described in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API). Fluorescence analysis, behavior of powdered drug with different chemical reagent, was performed as per the procedures given in the World Health Organization document/guidelines.
Results: Organoleptic analysis showed that leaf powder is light yellowish green in color with pungent odor having acrid taste. Microscopic study revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata on both surfaces. The TLC of methanolic extract corresponds to gallic acid and quercetin standards.
Conclusion: The findings would be useful for identification and standardization of leaf drug and would add the parameters in the API.
Aim: Dhumrapatra is an important medicinal plant used in Indian system of medicine. Due to overexploitation and unsystematic collection, it is becoming rare and endangered in some parts of India. To meet the demand of the authentic drug and propagate the plant on a large scale, an in vitro propagation technique has been developed for Dhumrapatra.
Materials and methods: The collected plant was identified with the help of floras. Murashige and Skoog basal (MS) medium was prepared as per the standard protocol. Surface sterilization of explants was done with the help of disinfectant and 0.1% solution of HgCl2. Media were autoclaved at 121°C under 15 lb/inch2 pressure for 15 minutes. Cultures were incubated at 22°C ± 2°C and 8 hours photoperiod with light intensity of 3000 lux. Observations were recorded after a 4-week period.
Results: Best establishment of shoots (20 nos.) was found in MS media augmented with 0.5 mg/L kinetin (Kn). Maximum roots (2–3 nos) produced in MS were fortified with 3 mg/L indolebutyric acid (IBA). Maximum number of shoots and roots were achieved on nodal explants inoculated on MS + Kn (0.5 mg/L) + 0.1% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).
Conclusion: The in vitro propagation protocol developed for Dhumrapatra would be beneficial for rapid multiplication and conservation of important medicinal plant.
Kandiyoor R Surabhi,
Yalwar R Sanjayakumar,
Kannanamkulam G Vasanthakumar
How to cite this article:
Thamizhselvam N, Surabhi KR, Sanjayakumar YR, Vasanthakumar KG. Evaluation of Safety of Karnasphota (Cardiospermum halicacabum L.) Leaf through Acute Oral Toxicity Study and Repeated Dose: 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Wistar Albino Rats. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2018; 3 (1):15-22.
Aim: Cardiospermum halicacabum L. is a climbing plant under Sapindaceae family. The plant leaf is used by traditional healers for treatment of various illnesses. Considering the ethno-medicinal value of C. halicacabum, the present study was taken up to evaluate single-dose acute toxicity study and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (subacute) in Wistar albino rats.
Materials and methods: The hydroalcoholic extract of C. halicacabum leaf was administered orally to Wistar rats as single dose (2000 mg/kg bwt) in acute toxicity study and for continuous 28 days in repeated dose subacute toxicity study at three dose levels (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt). The study was carried out as per Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines 423 and 407. Animal mortality and general behavior were observed during the study period.
Results: The study showed that there were no mortality and morbidity in the test groups. The detailed biochemical and hematological investigations evaluated in control and test groups evidenced the safety of the extract as there were no significant differences among control and test groups. Histopathology study in vital organs of test groups showed no significant abnormalities.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the hydroalcoholic extract of C. halicacabum was safe at the prescribed dosages in Wistar albino rats.
Clinical significance: As the safety dosage of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. halicacabum has been proved in Wistar rats, further studies on biological efficacy or biopotency studies can be taken up using these details.
Aim: An effort was made to collect and document the local heath traditions for the treatment of livestock diseases practiced by the indigenous communities of Sitapur district of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Materials and methods: Sitapur district is situated in the upper Gangetic plain of Uttar Pradesh and covering an area of 5743sq. km. and is divided into six tehsils namely Sitapur, Biswan, Mishrikh, Laharpur, Mahmoodabad and Sidhauli. Agriculture and animal husbandry are the main occupations of more than eighty percent of the population. In this study, minimum five villages from each of two Tehsils, namely Mishrikh and Sidhauli of Sitapur district of Uttar Pradesh, India, are randomly selected for the survey program.
Result: Documentation process was done in group consisting of folk healers/veterinarian, village headman, village sarpanch, village panchayat members, livestock holders, livestock supervisors, paravet, botanist, and the documenter.
Conclusion: The results from the study showed that the rural farmers and traditional herbal healers of villages in Sitapur district have been using a number of ethno-veterinary medicinal plants for the health care of livestock.
Clinical Significance: In the studied area of Sitapur district of Uttar Pradesh, India, a total of 29 plant species belonging to 25 families were found to be used traditionally by the rural livestock keepers for the treatment of 20 diseases.
How to cite this article:
Lale SK, Mudaiya RK. Exploration of Pharmaceutically Important Medicinal Plants in Deoria and Kushi Nagar Forest Divisions of Uttar Pradesh, India. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2018; 3 (1):29-42.
Objective: This article deals with the pharmaceutically important medicinal plants from Deoria and Kushi Nagar forest divisions of Uttar Pradesh to prepare documentation of the availability and distribution of medicinal plants in Deoria and Kushi Nagar districts of Uttar Pradesh.
Outcome of the study: Exploration of the two adjoining forest divisions was carried out during 2013 and 2016. During exploration, pharmaceutically important medicinal plants with their global positioning system (GPS) and potential in the field were recorded. Important medicinal plants like Aegle marmelos, Andrographis paniculata, Bacopa monnieri, Celastrus paniculata, Centella asiatica, Desmodium gangeticum, Oroxylum indicum, Piper longum, Solanum nigrum, Terminalia tomentosa, were recorded in the field.
Conclusion: The recorded plants need to be systemically utilized by the pharmaceuticals and the depleting medicinal plants from the habitat need to be commercially cultivated to fulfill the need of pharmaceuticals by the farmers by adding some other highly demanded medicinal plants having commercial value, viz., Aloe barbadensis, Rauwolfia serpentina, Uraria picta, etc.
Girish C Joshi,
Om R Sharma,
Surender K Sharma
How to cite this article:
Arya D, Joshi GC, Sharma OR, Sharma SK. Medico-Ethno Botanical Practices among Bhotia Tribe of Kumaon Himalaya: A Case Study from Bageshwar District, Uttarakhand, India. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2018; 3 (1):43-47.
Introduction: Traditional folk practices still hold major places as one of the major health-providing systems for the remote tribal and village people.
Aim: To study and collect folklore medicinal knowledge for further validation, so it can be used for the benefit of society.
Materials and methods: Medico-ethno botanical survey was done of Bageshwar district in Kumaon Himalayan region of Uttarakhand state of India.
Observation: Bhotia tribal community is major inhabitants of the forest areas in this region. Folklore was collected through participatory rural appraisal (PRA) technique.
Result: Totally 18 folklores were collected and documented.
Conclusion: Such traditional knowledge needs to be documented and preserved, as they are getting extinct gradually which may result in loss of such precious knowledge to be lost by mankind which may pave the path of future health care system.
Aim: This review aims to explore various pharmacological studies carried out on Tinospora cordifolia and exploit the therapeutic utility to combat different diseases.
Background: Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers] is a precious medicinal plant in Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine. The plant has long been used in Indian traditional medicine by the tribal and nontribal communities for treating a variety of diseases.
Results: Different pharmacology studies of Guduchi illustrated in this review show that this medicinal plant possesses antidiabetic, antioxidant, cognition, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and wound-healing, anticancer, antimalarial, immunomodulatory, and hepatoprotective activities.
Conclusion: The present review confirms the effectiveness of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in the prevention and treatment of different health ailments. However, an extensive research and development work on the herb targeting drug characterization and exploring their mechanism of action is essential for validating its potential in preventing and treatment of diseases.
Clinical significance: Tinospora cordifolia showed excellent antihyperglycemic, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activity. It also has beneficial effects on immune modulation for diabetic foot ulcer healing.
Introduction: This study aims to provide a preliminary review on the enumeration of medicinal plants mentioned in the Bhela Samhita along with a probable botanical identity. Bhela Samhita is one of the important classical treatises of Ayurveda. It is quoted by many scholars in medieval periods. It has sustained its originality as it is less redacted by its successors in the subsequent era. Apart from the critical edition of the manuscript of Bhela Samhita, None of the scholars of the ancient period or modern times have put much emphasis on the medicinal plants of Bhela Samhita.
Results: A total 286 medicinal plants are mentioned in the treatise whereas a total 419 Sanskrit names of the plants are found considering their multiple names. Further, these plants have shown about 1926 citations in the text.
Conclusion: Bhela has given a lot of and notable contributions in the field of medicinal plants which will be helpful for the comparative study with other contemporary Ayurveda classics for proper identification and therapeutic usage of the medicinal plants.