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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Local health traditions (LHTs) of Kailashahar subdivision, Unakoti district, Tripura
Nagayya Shiddamallayya, Binod Bihari Dora, Janardhanan Anjana, Gyati Anku, Tapashi Borah, Ashish K Tripathi, Priya Vij, Chinmay Rath, Anupam Kumar Mangal, Narayanam Srikanth
April-June 2021, 6(2):89-103
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_6_21  
AIM: Tripura is a state that covers wide valleys and plains that make up the vivid landscape. More than half of Tripura remains covered by green and moist deciduous forests. Many rural and tribal communities of the Kailashahar, Unakoti district of Tripura depend on traditional systems for the treatment of ailments. The present work has been conducted to document local health traditions (LHTs) from traditional healers and the utility of medicinal plants for treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As per the intramural project allocated by the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi to the Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, Itanagar has conducted a seasonal Medico Ethno Botanical Survey in the forest of Kailashahar subdivision of Unakoti district, Tripura during the year 2018–19. LHTs were documented according to the standard format provided by the Ministry of Ayush, Government of India by interviewing local traditional healers; thereafter, a collection of medicinal plant specimens, as well as digital photography of plants were used for treatment in various health conditions and for healing purposes. The properties of all herbal formulations were compared and correlated with the Ayurvedic literature and presented systematically and scientifically following the standard protocol. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Medico Ethno Botanical Survey team conducted a survey and documented 33 LHTs with 15 polyherbal and 18 single herbal formulations of 50 plants from traditional healers of the study area. Documented formulations have been used for the treatment of seven human body systems, namely locomotor, gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary, integumentary, endocrine, and urogenital. CONCLUSION: LHTs documentation throws light on the traditional practices for the treatment of human ailments of different body systems by using locally available plants and plant products. Procedures are economic, effective in treatment, and feasible for the rural and tribal populace in the management of health. Herbal formulations are validated with Ayurvedic fundamental principles to understand their high potential medicinal value.
  3,008 149 -
Botanical standardization, phytochemical analysis, and antioxidant studies of various fractions of Atibala [Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet] leaves
Rajesh Bolleddu, Sama Venkatesh, Anupam K Mangal, Subhose Varanasi, Deboleena Paria, Peyyala Venkata Vara Prasad, Nagayya Shiddamallayya, Venkateshwarlu Bandi, Narayanam Srikanth
April-June 2021, 6(2):79-88
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_8_21  
BACKGROUND: Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet (family: Malvaceae) is a perennial herb with golden yellow flowers called as Atibala in Ayurveda. The roots of this plant were widely used in traditional system of medicine as aphrodisiac, uterine tonic, and leaves are used in bronchitis, gonorrhea, fever, and urethritis. AIM: In this study, histological, powder microscopical studies of A. indicum (Malvaceae) leaves, followed by total phenolic, flavonoid content, antioxidant potential of hydroalcoholic extract, and its fractions, were determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anatomical, powder microscopical studies were carried out according to the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Hydroalcoholic extract was subjected to fractionation with different solvents, performed phytochemical studies for all fractions, and screened for DPPH (diphenyl picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and reducing power capacity. RESULTS: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in all the fractions. The total phenolic content of hydroalcoholic/mother extract and all fractions was ranged from 20 to 40 mg GAE/g. The flavonoid content of mother extract and all fractions was measured; values ranged from 16 to 30 mg RE/g. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by ethyl acetate fraction (IC50-60 µg/mL), followed by butanol fraction (IC50-95 µg/mL). The reducing powers of all the extracts were comparable with those of positive control butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). CONCLUSION: The high content of phenolic compounds indicated that these compounds are responsible for antioxidant activity. Therefore, ethyl acetate fraction of A. indicum leaves can be considered as a promising candidate for natural plant sources of antioxidants.
  1,743 208 -
Quantification of mercury after Samanya Shodhana (purifying process): A preliminary analysis
Sonam Sagar Bhinde, Biswajyoti J Patgiri
April-June 2021, 6(2):65-71
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_36_21  
BACKGROUND: Parada (mercury, Hg) is one of the important core ingredients in Rasa Aushadhi (metalo-mineral preparations). But owing to its origin, many metals and minerals are likely to be present in mercury as impurities. Direct use of such impure mercury may cause various types of complications, and hence preprocess of mercury is essential prior to its therapeutic use. Almost all classical texts related to Rasa Shastra (Ayurveda pharmaceutics for metalo-mineral preparations) have emphasized Parada Shodhana (purifying process of mercury) but with a variety of methods. These methods need to be revalidated with comprehensive methodology to develop its standard operative procedure (SOP), because standardization of the drugs is very crucial to ensure quality, efficacy, and reproducibility. Hence, to begin with, purifying process of mercury mentioned in Rasatarangini was adopted in the present research work. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Present study aimed to develop pharmaceutical standardization of purifying process of mercury accomplished by quantification of mercury percentage through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). MATERIALS AND METHODS: purifying process of mercury was done in three batches with lime powder, garlic, and rock salt, as mentioned in Rasatarangini. ICP-AES was carried out on the samples of unprocessed mercury, mercury after processing with lime powder (intermediate stage), and processed mercury after processing with garlic and rock salt. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: It was observed that processed mercury became bright silver in color and luster was increased in comparison to unprocessed mercury. The total average loss of mercury was 28.2%. ICP-AES analysis showed that the percentage of mercury decreased to 99.93% from 99.97%. CONCLUSION: Results of the present pharmaceutical process will help future researches to reproduce the same results and could be considered as SOP. Decrease in mercury % and introduction of arsenic and cadmium in the processed mercury indicate that trace elements of media are added in permissible quantity during this process.
  1,620 181 -
Computational modeling and analysis of Ayurvedic compounds in fighting against COVID-19
Pramodkumar P Gupta, Shraddha U Nayak, Mala M Parab, Debjani Dasgupta, Maheshkumar S Harit
January-March 2021, 6(1):28-39
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_11_21  
AIM: To screen the selective Ayurvedic amalgams against severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease in the investigation of antiviral activity using computational-based methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current research study endeavors to gauge the in silico potency of Ayurvedic molecules/drugs, chosen from primeval classical literature and former human medication protocols of Ayurveda for the preemption and treatment of contagion (COVID-19). Overall, 84 Ayurvedic compounds on the basis of antiviral activity were searched from literature and public database sources and canonical smiles format molecular information was retrieved from the PubChem database. All the compounds were sketched using Chemsketch tool and optimized using UFF force field. The selected molecules were then virtually screened against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease available structure. RESULTS: The outcomes were evaluated based on docking scores and pharmacophoric-based interactions; five compounds exhibited an optimum interaction within the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease. CONCLUSION: The current research study lay the foundation of drug repurposing with the amalgamation of knowledge of Ayurveda and computational aided modeling in fighting against COVID-19. Therefore, the pragmatic dogma proposed here will facilitate learning, generate evidence, and pave the way forward.
  1,435 201 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Critical review on pharmaceutico-analytical and safety profile of Swarna Makshika Bhasma (chalcopyrite calx)
Vandana Meena, Shakti Bhushan, Anand Chaudhary
January-March 2021, 6(1):3-11
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_4_21  
Swarna Makshika (chalcopyrite), an ore of copper, is used since ancient days in India to treat various ailments. Swarna Makshika Bhasma (SMB) preparation involves two main processes: Shodhana (detoxification) and Marana (incineration in a controlled manner). The present study is designed to compile and assess all the relevant and standard work done related to SMB preparation in addition to standardization in terms of its pharmaceutical, analytical, and safety parameters. These drugs may accumulate contaminants at various stages of manufacturing, transit, and storage, making them dangerous to administer and necessitating their detection and quantification. Analytical instrumentation and procedures are crucial in this regard. Sophisticated analytical analysis (X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and nuclear magnetic resonance) may improvize our understanding on drugs’ overall response in terms of their structure, behavior, and response in the body. Relevant literatures of ancient India related to ayurvedic pharmaceutics for preparation of SMB along with contemporary research databases such as Scopus, PubMed, and various other appropriate contents on the internet were thoroughly searched. This work may provide an insight into its potential effect in characterization and therapeutics, eventually leading to the betterment of human life. Though this compilation has some limitations due to less standard works available, the concise perimeter may provide further quality studies to be done in near future.
  1,395 228 -
EDITORIAL
Experiential learning in Ayurveda
Narayanam Srikanth
April-June 2021, 6(2):63-64
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_40_21  
  1,296 243 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
An overview of current manufacturing guidelines for Ayurveda formulations
Vaibhav Anandrao Charde, Ganesh Dane, Harmeet Kaur, Chandrashekhar Yuvaraj Jagtap, Vijay Kumar, Biresh Kumar Sarkar, G Babu, Bhagwan Sahai Sharma
July-September 2021, 6(3):122-127
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_1_21  
Good manufacturing practices (GMPs) are the guiding principles, which ensure that products are consistently produced and controlled as per quality standards. This is an important requirement for marketing authorization. At the global and national level, different regulatory authorities work to formulate guidelines and regulations for the manufacturing of product and also work to achieve harmonization of guidelines and quality control of pharmaceutical products. This article provides specific information on contemporary manufacturing guidelines for Ayurvedic formulations especially given by World Health Organization (WHO) and Drug & Cosmetic rules 1945 (Schedule T) and their suitable strategies for practice. Knowledge of such guidelines and practice is helpful to maintain quality, safety, and efficiency to extraordinary heights in the manufacturing of products.
  1,373 149 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Quality assessment of Kajjali yoga: A classical Ayurvedic formulation
Arjun Singh, Sarada Ota, Narayanam Srikanth, Ruknuddin Galib, Sreedhar Bojja, Kartar Singh Dhiman
January-March 2021, 6(1):20-27
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_26_21  
BACKGROUND: Kajjali (black sulfide of mercury) is prepared with mercury and sulfur as per Ayurvedic classics and is an important ingredient in many Rasaushadhis (herbo-mineral/metallic drugs)/Ayurvedic medicines. Here, an attempt has been made to understand its chemical composition and microstructure characterization of this drug using AAS/ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Kajjali was prepared in three batches by taking equal proportions of Shodhita Parada (purified mercury) and Shodhita Gandhaka (purified sulfur) and ground in Khalwa yantra (mortar and pestle) till the disappearance of metallic luster of mercury and conversion of the compound into black powder. Ayurvedic specifications for the analysis of Kajjali yoga were carried out. Physico-chemical analysis, assay of elements by AAS and ICP-AES, and microstructure characterization by XRD and XPS were performed to ensure the chemical nature. RESULTS: The chemical analysis revealed that Kajjali yoga contains 49.50% of mercury and 45.50% of sulfur on average together with minor elements. It usually contains free sulfur as evident from a peak at 21.3° in the XRD pattern. The XRD pattern confirms to the low temperature cubic crystalline form of mercuric sulfide. CONCLUSION: The developed in-house quality standards for the Kajjali yoga may be used as quality standards for the Kajjali yoga and will also help the scientists and researchers for further studies.
  1,244 185 -
Polygonum persicaria L. alleviated oxidative damage and hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats
Mohd Shafi Dar, Abu Tahir, Shazia Tabasum, Rafeeq Ahmad Najar, Deepak Kumar Mittal
January-March 2021, 6(1):12-19
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_66_21  
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Liver illnesses can be metabolic, poison-induced, or infectious and are the fifth greatest cause of death worldwide. Several traditional medicinal plants have been utilized to treat liver diseases in the past. The goal of this study is to see how effective an aqueous extract of Polygonum persicaria L. roots is in protecting the liver from CCl4 toxicity in adult Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extract of P. persicaria L. root sections was tested in CCl4-injured Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo. Animals were randomly assigned to normal control, toxic control, standard control (silymarin 100 mg/kg) groups and P. persicaria L. (200 and 400 mg/kg) treatment groups. Histopathology and serum biochemical markers of liver damage were investigated. The extract was examined for phytochemicals and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro. RESULTS: Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin levels in CCl4-damaged rats were all balanced after oral administration of the aqueous extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg/BW/day. In addition, when compared with silymarin therapy, histology of the liver revealed that P. persicaria L. restored tissue injury. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins were found to be present in P. persicaria L. The actions of antioxidants are shown in the DPPH method. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, P. persicaria L. can reduce hepatotoxicity and oxidative pressure in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the extract to prevent lipid peroxidation and boost antioxidant enzymatic activity could account for this effect.
  1,158 183 -
EDITORIAL
Ayurveda: The knowledge source for systems medicine
Narayanam Srikanth
January-March 2021, 6(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_39_21  
  1,104 231 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Diospyros exsculpta Buch.-Ham. an underutilized plant: Comparative determination of mineral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and protein-binding qualities of different parts of plant
Amit Kumar Dixit, Vijay Kumar, Ajay Kumar Meena, Bhavana Srivastava, Parvathy G Nair, Dipsunder Sahu, Dara Singh Rotwar, Manosi Das, Narayanam Srikanth
January-March 2021, 6(1):40-49
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_9_21  
BACKGROUND: Diospyros exsculpta Buch.-Ham. (DE) belongs to the genus Diospyros, is an underutilized plant and needs to explore its phytochemical and biological activities. OBJECTIVES: The Present study aimed to compare phytochemical and biological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and protein-binding assay of twig and stem bark of DE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biological and phytochemical properties of three solvents extracts of twig or branches and stem bark were analyzed. Quantitatively, minerals, antioxidant qualities, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and protein binding were analyzed. Antimicrobial activities were assessed against four bacterial and three fungal strains. RESULTS: It was observed that stem bark and twig of DE showed a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Good concentration of Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, P, and Zn has been observed. Comparatively, stem bark and twig have almost the same amount of nutrients (P ≤ 0.05). Value of total phenolic content (TPC) samples varied from 6.27 to 8.74 mg g-1 dry weight in methanol extracts, 18.48–24.09 mg g-1 DW in acetone extracts and 1.41-2.31 mg/g DW in petroleum ether extracts, which is called as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). Total flavonoid content varied from 87.52 to 197.2 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g DW of sample for methanol extracts, 70.12–86.25 mg QE/g DW for acetone extracts, and 2.55–3.75 mg QE/g DW for petroleum ether extracts. CONCLUSION: It was observed that all three extracts of twig and stem bark of DE have significant variation for antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activities were variable from assay to assay as well as extract to extract. Overall, in antioxidant activities, polar extracts have shown the most effective results. All three extracts have shown a significant protein-binding assay, which was almost close to aspirin. Anti-inflammatory assay of various extracts has revealed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Significant linear correlation (P ≤ 0.05) of TPC with antioxidant activities favored its role in antioxidant activity. These comparative findings on phytochemical, biological activities of stem bark, and twig of DE provide compelling scientific evidence of its therapeutic usage.
  1,072 137 -
BOOK REVIEWS
Select flora of medicinal importance in Sowa-Rigpa and Ayurveda: An introductory note and pictorial exposition: Book review
Bidhan Mahajon, Vijayan Ashwathy Kutty, V Rakesh Narayanan
July-September 2021, 6(3):193-194
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_6_22  
  1,087 107 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Documentation of ethno-medico-botanical claims of Rabha tribe, Ri-Bhoi district, Meghalaya
Shiddamallayya Nagayya, Devanjal Bora, Pulicherla Yugandhar, Cheemanapalli Srinivasulu, Bhardwaj Yashpal, Ashish Kumar Tripathi, Venkateshwarlu Bandi, Chinmay Rath, Anupam Kumar Mangal, Narayanam Srikanth
January-March 2021, 6(1):50-61
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_7_21  
AIM: The present survey work aims to explore and document the traditional healing practices of medicinal plants that have been used by the Rabha tribe of Ri-Bhoi district, Meghalaya, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medico-ethno-botanical survey was carried out in densely populated areas of the Rabha tribe in Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya. The documentation was carried out according to the standard Local Health Traditions format developed by the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences. Traditional knowledge of this tribe was documented through conducting personal interviews of local health practitioners during 2017–2019 along with these digital photographs of medicinal plants were also recorded. RESULTS: In the present study, a total of 17 types of disorders were treated using 28 types of medicinal plants that belong to 27 types of families. It is also found that for the treatment, herbs were mostly used among the life form of the plant (18), followed by leaves among the plant parts (28%), paste among the form of the drug (27%), and oral administration (47%) among the intake of the drug. The documented 28 medicinal plants were cross-checked with published ayurvedic classical text and other related literatures; ethnobotanical data of 12 medicinal plants were matched. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the preparation of medicine and mode of treatment practiced by the Rabha tribe is unique and required an urgent prerequisite for the documentation of imperiling knowledge of this tribe all over the state.
  1,037 121 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Venerated and medicinal aspects of plants used in India: An ethnobotanical review
Rudra Narayan Sahoo, Suresh Kumar, Amrita Suryavanshi, Dolly Kain, Atul Arya, Bharti Chaudhry
July-September 2021, 6(3):128-140
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_15_21  
Plants have always been the backbone of the entire ecosystem of life. Humans depend upon plants not only for fulfilling their basic needs but also for spiritual activities. Their significance has been attributed to their social importance. However, with modernization, these very traditional cultures and practices are increasingly at risk of extinction. Their associations with faith and religious practices have always been a boon for the conservation of plants and the entire ecosystem depends on it. India is a nation of rich cultural heritage, since ages, it has always emphasized the significance of plants in sacred texts and scriptures. Our ancestors linked divinity with several plants for their conservation and categorized them as sacred plants because of their miraculous medicinal properties. This situation reflects that though the knowledge of the medicinal value of the plants has vanished, it is still practiced in their religious culture. The study attempts to analyze both the religious and medicinal aspects of 21 plants on the basis of their analogous use across the subcontinent with respect to religions and shared beliefs which got incorporated in our culture because of their diverse benefits, making a divine way for the protection of nature and culture. This study shall stress the importance of ethnobotany and help in the constitution of realistic conservation strategies aiding sustainable development. The enlisted medicinal plants reveal ancient practices that have been scientifically accurate in terms of health and holistic lifestyle, promoting the sustainable use of plants for the betterment of the environment.
  1,023 133 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Metabolic characterization of Achillea millefolium L. through ultraviolet absorption, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis
Dolly Kain, Suresh Kumar, Jamil Ahmed Khan,   Vandana, Amrita Suryavanshi, Atul Arya
April-June 2021, 6(2):72-78
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_17_21  
BACKGROUND: Achillea millefolium L. is an aromatic herbal plant of family Asteraceae having characteristically finely divided leaves that give a fern-like appearance and corymbose cluster inflorescence that gives a flat-headed appearance to the plant. OBJECTIVES: To study absorption patten of mature and immature plant extract using UV spectroscopy, to study the different functional groups present in mature plant extract using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and to study various compounds present in the mature plant extract using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immature and mature A. millefolium have been collected from Pathanteer, Mendhar, Poonch, Jammu and Kashmir. For metabolic characterization of A. millefolium, ultraviolet (UV) absorption, FT-IR, and GC-MS have been used. RESULTS: UV spectroscopy of immature and mature plants reveals the clear difference in their absorption pattern with high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the mature plant. FT-IR analysis of the mature plants reveals the presence of different functional groups including alkyl-substituted ether, secondary amine, and carboxylic acid. GC-MS analysis reveals the presence of 70 compounds including 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy, neophytadiene, phytol, ethyl oleate, vitamin E, stigmasterol, γ-sitosterol, and α-amyrin, which are reported to have different medicinal properties. CONCLUSION: Achillea millefolium has shown versatile metabolic composition, which contributes to its different medicinal activities in the literature.
  928 150 -
Pharmacognostic characterization and antibacterial activity of Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl leaves: A traditional Himalayan medicinal plant
Shubham Sharma, Pankaj Kalia, Kalpna Palsra, Tushar Attri, Huma Khan, Vijay Kumar Kapoor, Swati Pundir
April-June 2021, 6(2):104-114
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_3_21  
BACKGROUND: Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl (synonym Brugmansia arborea; family Solanaceae) is one of the total seven species of Brugmansia which is commonly known as angel’s trumpet. It has analgesic, antinociceptive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, and various other activities. Despite its numerous medicinal properties, it has never been explored for its potential against bacterial species; also, no publication has been made on pharmacognostical characterization and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) investigation of its leaves. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to evaluate the pharmacognostical, physicochemical, HPTLC profiles of B. suaveolens leaves along with the assessment of in-vitro antibacterial activity of its various fractions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: B. suaveolens collected from sub-Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India was authenticated and then studied for various pharmacognostic and physicochemical parameters employing proper quality control methods for medicinal plant materials designed by the WHO. Extracts and fractions of air-dried coarse plant powder were prepared and were identified for the presence of various classes of compounds using preliminary phytochemical screening. HPTLC profile for quantitative evaluation of atropine in leaves of B. suaveolens was carried out and lastly, fractions were assessed for antibacterial activity by using disc diffusion method against chloramphenicol as standard. RESULTS: Transverse section, powder microscopy, leaf constants, and physicochemical parameters revealed valuable data to set up standards for the plant. Alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, and carbohydrates were found to be present. HPTLC showed 7.79–13.20%w/w of atropine in the plant. Chloroform and ethyl acetate fraction showed encouraging results against four strains of Gram-negative bacteria with good zone of inhibitions. CONCLUSION: The present study provides referential information for identification, authentication, and standardization of this highly important crude drug.
  935 115 -
EDITORIAL
Global positioning and branding of Ayush food: Need of the hour
Narayanam Srikanth
July-September 2021, 6(3):119-121
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_2_22  
  889 138 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Yava (Hordeum vulgare L.) as a Pathya (wholesome diet): A memoir from classical texts of Ayurveda
Seema Harshadbhai Kathavadiya, Rabinarayan Acharya
July-September 2021, 6(3):150-161
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_70_21  
Right diet is the essence of disease prevention and the foundation of a healthy and happy life. A properly selected diet and diet plan plays a critical importance in the management of any disease. The usage of Yava or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) both as Pathya (wholesome) and Aushadha (medicine) is established in ancient texts and modern research experiments. Yava is in practice since time immemorial due to its rich nutritional entities and various therapeutics benefits. The present review details Rasapanchaka (five attributes of dravya beginning with rasa), Rogaghnata (therapeutic indication) and utility of Yava as a Pathya depicted in Samhita, Sangrahagranth, Nighantu, and Rasagrantha. Yava is advocated as Pathya in 117 different disease conditions, nine swastha condition, and during the treatment course of six other medications. A total of 108 Ahara Kalpana (food dietetics preparations) of Yava has been found, among them 95 Ahara Kalpana having internal uses, 12 Ahara Kalpana having external uses and one Ahara Kalpana having both internal and external uses. It is found to be used in Swastha and 48 different disease conditions among them maximum formulations have been found in Prameha, Trushna, Jwara, Kasa, etc. Yava is contraindicated in persons suffering from Amlapita (dyspesia), Grahani (malabsorption syndrome), and during the administration of Gandhaka rasayana. Yava is highly useful grain which should be consumed to promote health of individual and prevent disease conditions.
  940 74 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Standard manufacturing procedure of Yava kshara (alkali preparation from Hordeum vulgare L.) with cotton wick method
Punam Aggarwal, R Galib, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
October-December 2021, 6(4):200-205
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_42_21  
Background: Ayurveda deals with minerals, metals, and herbs in therapeutics that have been classified into several groups. Among them, Yava kshara (alkali preparation made with the whole plant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a type of Kshara (alkaline preparation) that is useful in various diseases. Addition of cotton wick in the procedure seems to facilitate the process and increase the yield. However, its actual utility is not yet reported. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) of Yava kshara by using the cotton wick method. Materials and Methods: The method of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India was followed with addition of cotton wick to decant the liquid layers. Yava panchanga (whole plant—root, stem, leaf, flower, and seed of H. vulgare L.) was collected from the fields of Derwala, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan and authenticated at the National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi. Plant was dried and converted into ashes, washed for three times, and the process of decantation by cotton wick method was repeated to obtain alkaline preparation. Results: An average of 11.72% w/w Yava kshara was obtained from the first filtrate. The second and third filtrates yielded 2.9% and 1.26%, respectively. Conclusion: Addition of cotton wick facilitates decanting process and obtaining clear liquids. The yield is comparatively higher than the earlier reports.
  848 103 -
Shelf life evaluation of Vasaharitaki Avaleha and Vasaharitaki granules: An Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation with its modified dosage form
Neelam Matwan, Niladri Bhattacharjya, Pramod Yadav, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
October-December 2021, 6(4):206-217
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_67_21  
The stability of the product is its ability to resist deterioration due to environmental or microbial degradation, which is also called as shelf life, akaSaviryata Avadhi in Ayurveda. Vasaharitaki Avaleha (VHA) is a purely polyherbal formulation, which is mentioned for the management of various ailments of the respiratory system such as Shwasa (bronchial asthma) and Kasa (cough). There is always an issue regarding the palatability of this drug found in daily practices. Alteration or modification of the dosage form is a way to recover this problem without compromising the efficacy and stability of the drug. Therefore, this study was planned and the stability data of VHA and Vasaharitaki granules (VHG) is being presented based on primary physicochemical parameters (pH, loss on drying [LOD], extractive value, total sugar, total fat, and microbial count) and chromatographic fingerprinting as per International Council of Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines for Accelerated Study. The product withdrawn periods were 0, 1st, 3rd, and 6th months of storage in a condition of 40°C ± 2°C temperature and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. As per the current gazette notification, the shelf life of Avaleha and granules is not more than 3 years. On the basis of the accelerated stability data, 10% degradation of VHA was found in pH (3.312), LOD (11.088), total sugar (53.28), total fat (0.198), total plate count (378) parameters, and 10% degradation of VHG was found in pH (3.762), LOD (5.724), total sugar (63.702), water-soluble extractive (68.913), alcohol-soluble extractive (40.968), and total plate count (864.9). On the basis of these alterations, the stability period of VHA and VHG has been calculated to be 3.3 years and 2.8 years, respectively.
  835 89 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Medicinal plants of Arunachal Pradesh used in Ayurveda preparations: An overview
Anjana Janardhanan, GM Prashanth Kumar, N Shiddamallayya
January-March 2022, 7(1):11-22
DOI:10.4103/jdras.JDRAS_75_21  
Ayurveda is an Indian traditional medicine system practiced since the Vedic period. Plant, animal, and mineral origin crude drugs have been used in various formulations as mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Since a few decades, crude drugs of plant origin are gaining more importance. Most of the plants collected for formulations are available in surroundings of the village and nearby human dwelling sources and they are limited in forests. Most of the Ayurvedic formulations contain crude drugs of plant origin as major ingredients. As mentioned in the classical literature of Ayurveda, plants are employed in different ways to treat human and animal disorders. This study aims at exploring all crude drugs of plant origin available in the state of Arunachal Pradesh either cultivated or grown wild. Identifying those plant species serves as a tapping resource for utilizing the processed drugs for further industrial /pharmaceutical usage with respect to classical formulations. A comprehensive review of the Ayurvedic literature and the floras of Arunachal Pradesh found that classical formulations are made of 169 plant species belonging to 146 genera and 68 families. The state is rich in biodiversity, with a diverse range of plants utilized for therapeutic reasons; it also plays a vital role in meeting the local people’s pharmaceutical and nutritional needs.
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BOOK REVIEWS
Nutritional advocacy in Ayurveda: A pictorial guide
V Ashwathykutty, V Rakesh Narayanan
April-June 2021, 6(2):115-116
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_83_21  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessing the effect of Shodhana (detoxification) process using chromatographic profiling (HPTLC, HPLC, LC-MS, and GC-MS) and estimation of toxic content Abrine in Abrus precatorius L. (Gunja) seeds
Ajay Kumar Meena, Poorna Venktaraman, Kusuma Ganji, Neeraj Kumar, Ravindra Singh, Amit Kumar Dixit, R Ilavarasan, N Srikanth, Kartar Singh Dhiman
July-September 2021, 6(3):162-176
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_10_21  
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Abrus precatorius L. (Gunja) is popular in Ayurveda system of medicine for its seeds, which are toxic because of the presence of Abrine–an alkaloid. It is used for the management of skin disease (Kustha), itching (kandu), cough (kasa), wound (vrana), and alopecia (indralupta). The shodhana process in Ayurveda is used for the purification and detoxification of toxic plant materials. This study aimed to observe the effect of the shodhana (purification) on phytochemicals and the Abrine content of A. precatorius L. (Gunja) seeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanolic and chloroform extracts of A. precatorius L. (Gunja) seeds are used to determine the Rf value through high-performance thin-layer liquid chromatography (HPTLC) technique. Chemical profiling of seeds was carried out using sophisticated modern chromatographic different such as HPTLC, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). RESULTS: The Rf value 0.45 corresponds to Abrine and confirms its presence in Gunja seeds. GC-MS and LC-MS results show the presence of 19–22 compounds. Results of HPLC analysis showed that Abrine content in chloroform extract and ethanol extract reduced to 30.36% and 10.20%, respectively, after shodhana process. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed the significance and effectiveness of shodhana process in reducing the toxins present in A. precatorius.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Prospects of Ayurveda formulations as alternative approach for treatment of microbial diseases
Susmita Roy, Amit K Dixit, Ranjit K Dey, Saroj K Debnath, Peyyala Venkata Vara Prasad, Narayanam Srikanth
July-September 2021, 6(3):141-149
DOI:10.4103/jdras.jdras_61_21  
Infectious diseases are responsible for largest burden of premature deaths globally and frequent pandemics which threaten the existence of entire population. The current rise of drug resistance and the side-effects associated with antibiotics and synthetic drugs have posed a new challenge to the modern healthcare system. Ayurveda is one of the most ancient and traditional medical systems where poly-herbal compounds and crude plant extracts are tested and applied in many types of microbial and infectious diseases, e.g., Triphala churna, Neem extracts, etc. This study focuses on the scope and applicability of Ayurveda for management of infectious diseases. The reviews have followed the PRISMA model and guidelines and Ayurevdic classical literature along with electronic databases like PubMed, Web of Science, Google, Google scholar, Researchgate, and SciFinder were searched for this study. India is a rich source of biodiversity and lots of plants and plant products are still unexplored. Review suggests that Ayurveda can develop not only therapeutic compounds but also prophylactic compounds which can be helpful for preventing the microbial diseases, especially the viral ones. From ancient times, home remedies like honey, turmeric has been used as preferred and safer option for treatment of many diseases. Herbs like Tulsi, Neem and their extracts have medicinal value. Both single and poly-herbal compounds have various ranges of bioactive molecules. Fine powders or Churna like Triphala Churna, Ajmodadi Churna, and Dasamoola Churna have been found to act against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. The scope of Ayurveda can involve research on medicinal plants available in the country and can be proved a safer, cheaper, and sustained alternative to the antibiotics and synthetic drugs.
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EDITORIAL
Anukta vichara in Ayurveda: Potential area for knowing the unknown
Rabinarayan Acharya
January-March 2022, 7(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/jdras.JDRAS_49_22  
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