Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences

: 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 104--114

Pharmacognostic characterization and antibacterial activity of Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl leaves: A traditional Himalayan medicinal plant

Shubham Sharma1, Pankaj Kalia1, Kalpna Palsra1, Tushar Attri1, Huma Khan2, Vijay Kumar Kapoor1, Swati Pundir1,  
1 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Bajhol, PO Sultanpur, Distt. Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173229, India
2 School of Biotechnology, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Bajhol, PO Sultanpur, Distt. Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173229, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Swati Pundir
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Post Box 9, Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173229.


BACKGROUND: Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl (synonym Brugmansia arborea; family Solanaceae) is one of the total seven species of Brugmansia which is commonly known as angel’s trumpet. It has analgesic, antinociceptive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, and various other activities. Despite its numerous medicinal properties, it has never been explored for its potential against bacterial species; also, no publication has been made on pharmacognostical characterization and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) investigation of its leaves. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to evaluate the pharmacognostical, physicochemical, HPTLC profiles of B. suaveolens leaves along with the assessment of in-vitro antibacterial activity of its various fractions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: B. suaveolens collected from sub-Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India was authenticated and then studied for various pharmacognostic and physicochemical parameters employing proper quality control methods for medicinal plant materials designed by the WHO. Extracts and fractions of air-dried coarse plant powder were prepared and were identified for the presence of various classes of compounds using preliminary phytochemical screening. HPTLC profile for quantitative evaluation of atropine in leaves of B. suaveolens was carried out and lastly, fractions were assessed for antibacterial activity by using disc diffusion method against chloramphenicol as standard. RESULTS: Transverse section, powder microscopy, leaf constants, and physicochemical parameters revealed valuable data to set up standards for the plant. Alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, and carbohydrates were found to be present. HPTLC showed 7.79–13.20%w/w of atropine in the plant. Chloroform and ethyl acetate fraction showed encouraging results against four strains of Gram-negative bacteria with good zone of inhibitions. CONCLUSION: The present study provides referential information for identification, authentication, and standardization of this highly important crude drug.

How to cite this article:
Sharma S, Kalia P, Palsra K, Attri T, Khan H, Kapoor VK, Pundir S. Pharmacognostic characterization and antibacterial activity of Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl leaves: A traditional Himalayan medicinal plant.J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2021;6:104-114

How to cite this URL:
Sharma S, Kalia P, Palsra K, Attri T, Khan H, Kapoor VK, Pundir S. Pharmacognostic characterization and antibacterial activity of Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl leaves: A traditional Himalayan medicinal plant. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Dec 7 ];6:104-114
Available from:

Full Text


Himalayan ranges carry a vast variety of traditionally used biologically active plant species, out of which very few has been reached to laboratories for isolation of compounds and few of such less or nil explored plant species are on verge of extinction. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and conserve such medicinally important vulnerable/endangered plant species. Also, there are various plant species which are chemically and morphologically similar and are in need to undergo herbal characterization using detailed pharmacognostic evaluation that gives external appearance, microscopy, and physical characteristic of the crude drug.[1]

Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl (B. suaveolens) commonly known as angel’s trumpet is Himalayan flowering shrub belonging to nightshade family Solanaceae, which carries similar morphological and chemical features to Datura species.[2] Angel’s trumpet was originally part of the genus Datura, but later placed in a separate genus called Brugmansia.[3]B. suaveolens is among the total seven species of Brugmansia[4] and believed to extinct soon.[3] It is listed as one of the vulnerable medicinal plant species in the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) red list of threatened species.[5] Therefore, the present work established pharmacognostic and physicochemical identity of leaves of B. suaveolens, which will help in its identification and efforts could be made toward its conservation via tissue culture or other techniques.

This plant is indigenous to Brazil where it grows at an altitude less than 1000–1500 m. It is also found in South and Central America, Mexico, California, and in some parts of Florida.[3] In India, it is found in Eastern and Western Ghats and specifically in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and in some parts of Himachal Pradesh.[6]B. suaveolens is rich in tropane alkaloids, such as atropine, scopolamine (hyoscine), and hyoscyamine.[7],[8] It also contains flavonoids such as kaempferol, physalindicanol-A, and physalindicanol-B.[9] Flowers of B. suaveolens contain essential oils. White flowers are dominated with 1,8-cineole (72.1%), (E)-nerolidol (11.7%), α-terpineol (5.3%), and phenethyl alcohol (3.2%), whereas pink flowers show decreased levels of 1,8-cineole (2.0%), (E)-nerolidol (1.9%), and phenethyl alcohol (not detected) and increased levels of heptanal (10.2%), nonanal (17.4%), terpinen-4-ol (10.5%), and megastigmatrienones (35.5%).[10],[11] Traditionally, B. suaveolens is used as an entheogen,[9] analgesic,[10] and in wound healing in Northern Peru.[12] The flowers and leaves are also used for the treatment of menstrual pain, infections, and mental weaknesses. It is also used as an aphrodisiac.[13] The stem is applied externally for skin anomalies for rapid healing.[14] It is also used for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antirheumatic, and hallucinogenic.[15] Pharmacologically, aqueous extracts of flowers of B. suaveolens have been reported for antinociceptive effects[16],[17] and have also been shown to reduce morphine tolerance and dependence.[17] Tropane alkaloids isolated from hairy root cultures of B. suaveolens have been reported for anticancer activity.[18] The plant is also reported to contain constituents responsible for anticorrosive effects.[19] The plant has enormous therapeutic potential with every part of plant being used medicinally, including leaves.

In spite of its tremendous medicinal attributes, no earlier reports on pharmacognostical and physicochemical profile of B. suaveolens leaves are available. Therefore, taking this in consideration, the present investigation was undertaken to establish pharmacognostic, physicochemical, and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profile of B. suaveolens. Pharmacognostic features provided basic idea about the features such as macroscopy, qualitative microscopy (transverse section, type of stomata, powder microscopy of leaf and petiole separately), and quantitative microscopy (number of stomata, vein-islet number, vein termination number, and stomatal index), whereas physicochemical features gave idea of foreign matter, swelling index, foaming index, ash value, extractable matter, and loss on drying. Phytochemical screening indicated the class of secondary metabolites present in plant material, whereas the HPTLC profile gave idea of percent presence of already reported biologically active compound atropine in Himalayan B. suaveolens. Antibacterial activity indicated the most potent fraction of the plant. Hence, this work would be of great significance in assessing the quality, identity, and purity of this crude drug for further development.

 Materials and Methods

Collection and authentication of plant material

Fresh leaves of B. suaveolens were collected from the Physic garden of School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India in June 2017. The botanical identity of plant was authenticated and certified by Dr. R Raina, Professor, Department of Forest Products, Dr Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, with field book no. 2916 and receipt no. 051.


Safranin, petroleum ether, atropine, ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, chloral hydrate solution, safranin, phloroglucinol, hydrochloric acid, glycerine, sodium hydroxide, and dimethyl sulfoxide were purchased from LobaChemie, E. Merck Limited India and HiMedia Laboratories, Mumbai, India.

Working solutions: Muller-Hinton agar nutrient medium and nutrient broth-basic liquid medium for growing the overnight bacterial cultures were purchased from HiMedia Laboratories, Mumbai, India.


Plant leaves were powdered in a grinder mixer (Philips HL 7720 750 W). Microscopic features of plants were visualized under a compound microscope (Radical, RXL-5T, model no. 3-7692) with maximum 100× magnification attached with a Leitz MPS 32 camera, stage micrometer. Cell culture experiments were performed in a biosafety cabinet (Waiometra, Catalog no. AMB-4, working area 4″×2″×2″; Associated Scientific Technologies Delhi, India). Hot air oven (SSU_22; 50.8×63.5×50.8 cm; 22 kg; model no. B01N3V6RPC) was used for various purposes. Sonicator (Ultrasonic cleaner; Model-Cleaner 30A) was used for properly solubilizing the fractions in solvent. Ash value was done using a silica crucible (Sintrex corporation, cat. no. 1130/15) and a muffle furnace (P.R. Scientific and Instrument House, product code-MF 04).

Organoleptic and macroscopic evaluation

Leaves of B. suaveolens were assessed for their impact on various organs of sense for organoleptic properties. Its color, odor, shape, size (length and width), taste, and other diagnostic parameters were observed and recorded. Macroscopic evaluation was based on the visual appearance with naked eyes or by using magnifying lens. External characters were observed such as type of leaf, shape, apex, lamina, margin, base, venation and texture of leaf, and features of flower.[20],[21],[22],[23],[24]

Microscopic analysis

Study of transverse section

Fine sections of leaves and petiole of B. suaveolens were cut manually using a sharp blade taking potato as pith. Thin sections were then decolorized using chloral hydrate and stained with safranin dye (0.1% w/v solution in distilled water). After mounting the section in glycerine, prepared slides were visualized under a microscope at magnification 10X or 40X, and suitable clear pictures were clicked and documented.[25],[26]

Powdered drug microscopy

The coarse powder of leaf was mounted in glycerine on a glass slide after decolorizing with chloral hydrate. Photographs of different magnified cellular structures were captured and documented.[25],[26]

Analysis of leaf surface parameters

The surface preparation of leaf was done for determination of type of stomata, number of stomata, vein-islet number, vein termination number, and stomatal index. Stomatal number is determined as the average number of stomata per sq. mm of epidermis of the leaf, whereas stomatal index is the percentage proportion of the ultimate divisions of the epidermis of a leaf which have been converted into stomata. Vein-islet number is the number of vein-islets per sq. mm of the leaf surface midway between the midrib and the margin, whereas vein termination number is the number of veinlet terminations per sq. mm of the leaf surface midway between the midrib and margin. The transparent epidermal layer of leaf was carefully peeled out, stained, and evaluated for all the mentioned parameters using standard procedures.[25],[26],[27]

Physiochemical analysis

Physiochemical parameters such as foreign matter, swelling index, foaming index, ash value, extractable matter, and moisture content were determined according to the methods described by the WHO guidelines designed for the quality control methods for medicinal plant materials.[21]

Preparation of extracts and fractions

Leaves of B. suaveolens were first washed to remove adhered dirt and then air-dried under shade. The coarse powder of the air-dried plant was prepared using a grinder and passed through sieve no. 16. Standard procedures were followed for the extraction and fractionation of the plant material employing bottled solvents. About 52 g of coarse plant material was extracted first with petroleum ether for defatting and then extracted with ethanol by continuous hot percolation in Soxhlet apparatus. Further, the ethanolic extract of the plant was polarity-based fractionated using chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Extract and fractions were filtered and the solvent was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure in a rota evaporator at 40ºC (Heidolph, Germany). All the dried extracts were kept in well-closed containers under refrigeration (2–4ºC) until used for biological testing.[28],[29]

Preliminary phytochemical screening

Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening for the detection of various phytoconstituents. A series of standard identification tests were performed to detect the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, amino acids, carbohydrates, triterpenoids, and tannins.[28],[29],[30],[31]

HPTLC instrumentation and experimental condition

Atropine is one of the biologically active constituents of B. suaveolens chosen for quantitative determination in the plant fraction. Out of the total four fractions, only chloroform fraction showed appreciable band of atropine on TLC plate in manual lab trials; therefore considering this, chloroform fraction was further carried for HPTLC determination. Chloroform sample as well as atropine in quantity of 10 µL was spotted on the TLC plate with a band length of 6.0 mm and a band width of 1.0 mm using a CAMAG Linomat 5 automatic sample applicator equipped with Hamilton syringe. Plates were developed in a twin trough chamber and scanned with a Camag TLC Scanner conjugated with winCATS Planar Chromatography Manager Software. The plate was developed vertically ascending in a twin trough glass chamber (Camag, Switzerland) saturated with mobile phase consisting of chloroform: ethanol: acetone: 25% ammonium hydroxide (71:15:10:1.6 v/v/v/v/). The plate was derivatized using Dragendorff’s reagent and scanning was achieved at 520 nm. The peak numbers with its height and area, peak display, and peak densitogram were recorded.[29],[32],[33]

Antibacterial activity

Bacterial strains such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were procured from MIPL (Molecular and Immuno-Parasitology Laboratory) of Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Four fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol) were assessed for their antibacterial potential against these four microbial strains, using disc diffusion assay. Activity was checked by comparing zone of inhibition with chloramphenicol as positive control. The antibacterial compounds present in the plant fraction were allowed to diffuse out into the medium and interact in a plate freshly seeded with the test organisms. The resulting zones of inhibition were assessed by measuring the diameter of zone of inhibition in millimeters.

Procedure of disc well diffusion method

Petri plates containing 20 mL Muller-Hinton medium were seeded with bacterial strains and kept for 24 h. Wells were cut and 20 µL of the plant extracts, namely, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and standard drug chloramphenicol were added. The plates were then incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zone formed around each well, and the respective diameter was recorded against each bacterial strain.[34]


Organoleptic and macroscopic features

The plant occurs as 2–5 m tall tender shrub or a small tree which contains evergreen leaves alternatively arranged on the plant stem. Pictures of B. suaveolens in its natural habitat have been documented [Figure 1]. Visual inspection revealed that leaves of B. suaveolens are dorsiventral with a prominent midrib and pubescent surface. Leaves are green to dark green in color with 16 cm in length and 9 cm in width having lanceolate shape with acuminate apex, oblique base, pinnate venation, and entire margin. The plant has white-colored, funnel- or bell- or trumpet-shaped actinomorphic flowers. The total length of flowers was found to be 9–10 cm having long androecium, whose filament part droops outside from the corolla body [Figure 2]. The gynoecium of flower is found to be composed of two fused carpels as in other plants of Solanaceae family. Taste found to be bitter, while odor was slight and unpleasant.{Figure 1} {Figure 2}

Microscopic analysis

Transverse section of leaf and petiole

The transverse section of leaf of B. suaveolens showed dorsiventral leaf structure. Upper and lower epidermis showed the presence of numerous non-glandular/covering, multicellular trichomes. Below the uniformly arranged single layer of cells forming upper epidermis, there was a single row of palisade cells present in the leaf lamina, whereas it was absent in the midrib region. This layer was seen to be further followed by vascular strands and spongy parenchyma. In the midrib region, upper epidermis is first followed by two to three layers of thick-walled collenchyma cells and then two to four layers of loosely packed parenchyma cells containing stone cells and starch grains, which were further followed by a centrally located vascular bundle containing xylem and phloem cells [Figure 3](A).{Figure 3}

The transverse section of the petiole was subglobose in shape containing a single row of uniformly arranged epidermal cells containing numerous covering trichomes enveloping whole section. It is further followed by two rows of collenchyma cells and subsequent four to five layers of parenchyma cells enclosing starch grains and stone cells, surrounding an arc-shaped vascular bundle [Figure 3(B)].

Powder microscopy of drug

Powder microscopy showed the presence of features such as cut fragments of vessels, fragments of lower as well as upper epidermis adhering to unicellular as well as multicellular covering trichomes, numerous acicular types of calcium oxalate crystals, starch grains and broken fibers [Figure 4].{Figure 4}

Leaf constants

Surface preparation of leaf was done for the determination of type of stomata, number of stomata, vein-islet number, vein termination number, and stomatal index. The peeled epidermal layer of leaf showed the presence of anisocytic as well as anomocytic types of stomata [Figure 5]. Numbers of stomata were found to be 9 per square millimeter. Further stomatal index was found to be 19.14, whereas vein-islet number and vein termination number are found to be 23 and 8, respectively [Figure 6]. All these features were studied for the first time and will help to authenticate this plant in future. All the values have been summarized in [Table 1].{Figure 5} {Figure 6} {Table 1}

Physicochemical analysis

Physicochemical parameters were studied as per the quality control methods for medicinal plant materials (QCMMPM) designed by the World health organization.[19] Foreign matter was found to be composed of sand, silt, dust, etc. and calculated as 0.6 (%w/w). Total ash value, water-soluble ash value, and acid-insoluble ash value were determined as 19.6, 5.06, and 8.4 (%w/w), respectively, which show that it includes both physiological and non-physiological ash. Swelling index came out to be one which indicates the presence of mucilage and gums responsible for plant swelling properties. Foaming index calculated as less than 100 indicates the absence of saponins. The test for loss on drying determines both water and volatile matter and it is noticed as 7.33 (%w/w). Extractable matter was calculated by subjecting plant material for cold maceration and hot extraction using water and ethanol as solvent. Cold maceration extractive value using water and ethanol as solvent came out to be 6.425 (%w/w) and 12.80 (%w/w), respectively, whereas hot extractive value using water and ethanol was found to be 9.8 (%w/w) and 21.61 (%w/w), respectively. All the data have been summarized in [Table 2].{Table 2}


About 52 g of leaves were extracted and further fractionated. The color, consistency, weight, and yield of all the fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) obtained have been given in [Table 3].{Table 3}

Preliminary phytochemical screening

Phytochemical screening of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fraction of leaves of B. suaveolens was performed, and results obtained revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, and carbohydrates. Results of the study have been shown in [Table 4].{Table 4}

TLC development and HPTLC standardization of plant

HPTLC revealed that B. suaveolens contains appreciable amount of atropine. Retention factor (Rf) for atropine was found to be 0.40, and its quantity present in the plant was found to be 7.79–13.20%w/w. The picture of HPTLC graph and TLC plate has been documented [Figure 7].{Figure 7}

Pharmacological activity

Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions of leaves of B. suaveolens were evaluated for antibacterial activity using disc diffusion method. Out of all the four fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was found to be most potent antibacterial in comparison to positive control—chloramphenicol by showing zone of inhibition of 14 mm for both E. coli and P. aeruginosa and 15 and 16 mm for S. typhi and S. aureus, respectively. Chloroform fraction also showed comparable zone of inhibition to that of standard, whereas n-butanol and petroleum ether had been considered inactive against bacterial species due to least zone of inhibitions [Figure 8]. Results have been properly tabulated in [Table 5].{Figure 8} {Table 5}


B. suaveolens has a wide range of ethanobotanical uses, and many of them have been proven by pharmacological testing.[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19] But no pharmacopoeial standards have yet been established for this plant species. Development of these standards will be an important aid in correct identification, authentication, and standardization of this plant material for future researchers. Thus, in the present research article, leaves (most used part) of B. suaveolens were evaluated for their various pharmacognostic and physicochemical features. B. suaveolens is an evergreen shrub having green-colored, lanceolate-shaped, and pubescent-surfaced large leaves.[7] Transverse section and powder microscopy showed features resembling dorsiventral leaf with the presence of numerous starch grains and acicular-shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Multicellular covering trichomes and anisocytic as well as anomocytic types of stomata were found to be present on the epidermal layer of plant, which is the important diagnostic feature of the plant. Further, data obtained in various leaf surface parameters are also important in view of analyzing the purity and quality of the drug.

Data obtained by performing various physicochemical parameters such as ash value, foreign matter, foaming index, swelling index, moisture content, and extractive values are helpful in assessing the quality and standardizing the plant material in future. Percent ash values determined in the present study may be useful in stabilizing standards of purity and quality of the drug. Total ash content indicated the total amount of inorganic salts of phosphates, carbonates, silicates of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The acid-insoluble ash was high when compared with water-soluble ash, which indicates that large amount of inorganic component is insoluble in acid and this is a diagnostic tool. The moisture content of the fresh leaves was found to be 7.33%, showing that the leaf took very less time to dry after they were plucked. The extractive values gave the idea of the percent yield of extracts in hot as well as cold conditions using water and ethanol as solvents. The study showed that yield of ethanolic extract is quite high when compared with aqueous extract in both cold and hot conditions. Thus, ethanol is a good choice of solvent for carrying out extraction of leaves of B. suaveolens. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, and carbohydrates as the major class of secondary metabolites present in the plant extract. HPTLC of chloroform fraction confirmed the presence of atropine in substantial quantity at Rf 0.4. Lastly, the disc diffusion method done for antibacterial assessment of all plant fractions revealed chloroform fraction as the most active due to comparable zone of inhibitions to that of standard, whereas n-butanol and petroleum ether fractions considered to be the most inactive against bacterial species due to least zone of inhibitions.


Morphological and microscopical studies revealed that leaves are lanceolate, thin, alternately arranged, green to dark green, acuminate apex, hairy epidermis with uniformly arranged single layer of epidermis cells and palisade cells in the leaf lamina, parenchyma, collenchyma and multicellular covering trichomes, and anisocytic and anomocytic types of stomata. Alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, and carbohydrates were found to be present. HPTLC provided the idea of amount of atropine present in the leaves of B. suaveolens, which can be further utilized for the standardization of this plant material. Disc diffusion assay revealed that the chloroform fraction of the B. suaveolens leaves was widly active against most of the bacterial species. The pharmacognostical assay of B. suaveolens leaves including data on leaf surface parameters/leaf constants, transverse section, powder microscopy, and physicochemical parameters provided a vital diagnostic tool for identification, authentication, and detection of adulterants of B. suaveolens leaves, along with development of quality parameters of the species.


The authors thank Dr. P.K. Khosla, Vice-Chancellor, Shoolini University for providing research facilities.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



1Rakholiya K, Chanda S Pharmacognostic, physicochemical and phytochemical investigation of Mangifera indica L. var. Kesar leaf. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2(Suppl. 2):S680-4.
2Gemeinholzer B, Wink M Solanaceae: Occurrence of secondary compounds versus molecular phylogeny. In: Van den Berg RG, Barendse GWM, Van der Weerden GM, Mariani C, editors. Solanaceae V: Advances in Taxonomy and Utilization. Nijmegen: Nijmegen University Press; 2001. p. 165-77.
3Van der Donck I, Mulliez E, Blanckaert J Angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia arborea) and mydriasis in a child: A case report. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol 2004;292:53-6.
4Shah VV, Shah ND, Patrekar PV Medicinal plants from Solanaceae family. Res J Pharm Technol 2013;6:143-51.
5Hay A. Brugmansia suaveolens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; 2014. Available from: [Last accessed on 23 Nov 2021].
6USDA-ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory; 2015. Available from:
7Preissel U, Preissel HG Brugmansia and Datura: Angel’s Trumpets and Thorn Apples. Buffalo, NY, USA: Firefly Books; 2002. p. 144.
8Evans WC, Lampard JF Alkaloids of Datura suaveolens. Phytochem 1972;11:3293-8.
9Ott J Pharmacotheon. Entheogenic Drugs, Their Plant Sources and History. Kennewick, WA: Natural Products Co; 1996. p. 88.
10Sajeli Begum A, Sahai M, Fujimoto Y, Asai K, Schneider K, Nicholson G, et al. A new kaempferol diglycoside from Datura suaveolens Humb. & Bonpl. ex. Willd. Nat Prod Res 2006;20:1231-6.
11Anthony SJ, Zuchowski W, Setzer WN Composition of the floral essential oil of Brugmansia suaveolens. Rec Nat Prod 2009;3:76-81.
12De Feo V Ethnomedical field study in northern Peruvian Andes with particular reference to divination practices. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;85:243-56.
13Descola P The Spears of Twilight: Life and Death in the Amazon Jungle. New York: The New Press; 1996. p. 63.
14Ratsch C The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants; Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications. Rochester: Park Street Press; 1988.
15Nencini C, Cavallo F, Bruni G, Capasso A, De Feo V, De Martino L, et al. Affinity of Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea extracts on different cerebral receptors. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;105:352-7.
16Muccillo-Baisch AL, Parker AG, Cardoso GP, Cezar-Vaz MR, Soares MC Evaluation of the analgesic effect of aqueous extract of Brugmansia suaveolens flower in mice: Possible mechanism involved. Biol Res Nurs 2010;11:345-50.
17Mattioli L, Bracci A, Titomanlio F, Perfumi M, De Feo V Effects of Brugmansia arborea extract and its secondary metabolites on morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Evid-Based Complement Alternat 2012;1:741925.
18Alan EA In vitro cultures for the production of some anticancer agents. Life Sci 2010;1:297-310.
19Sakunthala P, Charles A, Kesavan D, Ramani VA Phytochemical screening and adsorption studies of Brugmansia suaveolens. Chem Sci Rev Lett 2013;2:319-22.
20Amponsah IK, Mensah AY, Otoo A, Mensah MLK, Jonathan J Pharmacognostic standardization of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H.Watt. (Phytolaccaceae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;4:9410-946.
21WHO. Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant and Materials. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1998. p. 1-114.
22Kumar M, Mondal P, Borah S, Mahato K Physico-chemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical investigation, fluorescence and TLC analysis of leaves of the plant Lasia spinosa (Lour.) Thwaites. Int J Pharm Sci 2013;5:306-10.
23Mohan GK, Sachin YS, Manohar VP, Dipak LR, Sanjay JS Pharmacognostical investigation and physicochemical analysis of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. leaves. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:1232-36.
24Wallis TE Text Book of Pharmacognosy. London: J. & A. Churchill Ltd; 1985. p. 572-75.
25Gokhale SB, Kokate CK Practical Pharmacognosy. 13th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2009. p. 1-107.
26Khandelwal KR Practical Pharmacognosy, Techniques and Experiments. 17th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan Publishers; 2007. p. 149-56.
27Kumar D, Kumar K, Kumar S, Kumar T, Kumar A, Prakash O Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf and root bark of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:169-75.
28Trease GE, Evans WC Pharmacognosy. 11th ed. London: Bailliere Tindall Ltd; 1978. p. 60-75.
29Harborne JB Phytochemical Methods—A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 2nd ed. London: Cassell and Collier Macmillan Publishers Ltd; 1984. p. 9-15.
30Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Pune, India: Nirali Prakashan; 2008 p. 607-11.
31Menpara D, Chanda S Phytochemical and pharmacognstic evaluation of leaves of Pongamia pinnata L. (Fabaceae). Phcog Commun 2014;4:3-7.
32Kokotkiewicz A, Migas P, Stefanowicz J, Luczkiewicz M, Krauze-Baranowska M Densitometric Tlc analysis for the control of tropane and steroidal alkaloids in Lycium barbarum. Food Chem 2017;221:535-40.
33Bladt S Plant Drug Analysis: A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 1996. p. 350-64.
34Turker AU, Yildirim AB, Karakas FP, Turker H In vitro antibacterial and antitumor efficiency of some traditional plants from Turkey. Indian J Traditional Knowledge 2018;17:50-8.