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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11-22

Medicinal plants of Arunachal Pradesh used in Ayurveda preparations: An overview


1 Parul Institute of Ayurved, Parul University, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Botany, Post Graduate Centre, University of Mysore, Hassan, Karnataka, India
3 Medicinal Plant Research Section, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Jawahar Lal Nehru Bhartiya Chikitsa Avum Homeopathy Anusandhan Bhavan, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission24-Nov-2021
Date of Decision15-Feb-2022
Date of Acceptance15-Feb-2022
Date of Web Publication07-Jul-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. N Shiddamallayya
Medicinal Plant Research Section, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Jawahar Lal Nehru Bhartiya Chikitsa Avum Homeopathy Anusandhan Bhavan, Janakpuri, New Delhi 110058
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdras.JDRAS_75_21

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  Abstract 

Ayurveda is an Indian traditional medicine system practiced since the Vedic period. Plant, animal, and mineral origin crude drugs have been used in various formulations as mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Since a few decades, crude drugs of plant origin are gaining more importance. Most of the plants collected for formulations are available in surroundings of the village and nearby human dwelling sources and they are limited in forests. Most of the Ayurvedic formulations contain crude drugs of plant origin as major ingredients. As mentioned in the classical literature of Ayurveda, plants are employed in different ways to treat human and animal disorders. This study aims at exploring all crude drugs of plant origin available in the state of Arunachal Pradesh either cultivated or grown wild. Identifying those plant species serves as a tapping resource for utilizing the processed drugs for further industrial /pharmaceutical usage with respect to classical formulations. A comprehensive review of the Ayurvedic literature and the floras of Arunachal Pradesh found that classical formulations are made of 169 plant species belonging to 146 genera and 68 families. The state is rich in biodiversity, with a diverse range of plants utilized for therapeutic reasons; it also plays a vital role in meeting the local people’s pharmaceutical and nutritional needs.

Keywords: Arunachal Pradesh, Ayurveda, medicine


How to cite this article:
Janardhanan A, Prashanth Kumar G M, Shiddamallayya N. Medicinal plants of Arunachal Pradesh used in Ayurveda preparations: An overview. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2022;7:11-22

How to cite this URL:
Janardhanan A, Prashanth Kumar G M, Shiddamallayya N. Medicinal plants of Arunachal Pradesh used in Ayurveda preparations: An overview. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 10];7:11-22. Available from: http://www.jdrasccras.com/text.asp?2022/7/1/11/350056




  Introduction Top


Plants are known to treat medical conditions and promote good health since ancient times. Considering the ancient history of the tradition, medicinal plants remain an important part of traditional health systems and have been used by the majority of individuals in most underdeveloped nations as per the reports of the World Health Organization (WHO). Plants are helping to meet the demands of traditional medicine markets, which may be found in both domestic and international markets. Plants have a key role to play in the lives of tribal and folklore people dwelling in the Himalayas and foothills of Himalaya. These herbal plant sources are both food and medicine either cultivated or found wild used since ancient times. Several plants possessing medicinal properties have been found to be effective in the treatment of disorders as mentioned in ancient Indian literature.[1],[2],[3]

Ayurveda is India’s oldest medical system, which is established on strong foundations that are fully endorsed by long experimentation and philosophical propositions. The Ayurvedic system uses knowledge of medicines, meals, aromas, colors, lifestyle and surgery, and goes back to around 1,000 BCE.[4]Charaka Samhitha, Sushruta Samhitha, Ashatangahridaya, Nighantu, and Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia have been the most fundamental Ayurvedic source texts. In Charaka Samhita, 341 drugs from a plant source and in Sushruta Samhita, 395 drugs from a plant source are discussed; similarly, in Ashtanga Hridaya, 902 plant species are discussed.[5],[6],[7] Though the original research is in Sanskrit, a complete list was compiled from the literature of Ayurveda, such as the Ayurveda Pharmacopoeia of India, which described 399 plants, and the Ayurveda Formulary of India, which specified 506 plants in use for various preparations.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16]

There are no authentic data supporting the trade of crude drugs from the state of Arunachal Pradesh to pharma industries for medicinal purposes. However, since ages, Vaidyas, tribal, and traditional healers have been following household healing practices by using the locally available herbs. In our country, it is claimed that more than 9000 pharmaceutical entities are currently involved in the manufacturing of Ayurvedic medications and formulations. There seem to be around 8,000 classical formulations available, with 200 of these formulations being widely employed in Ayurvedic therapeutics.[17] Medicinal plants play a key role in Ayurvedic medicine, and they have been utilized as single-species medication or in a variety of formulations. The practice of Ayurveda continues to treat various diseases and provide positive health benefits to the people. Herbal formulation has gained great importance and increasing global attention. The scenario is noticeable, as a major increase in the usage of herbal formulation has been observed during the past few years in the developed world, where market expansion occurred in other countries such as the United States and European countries.[18] According to the WHO, traditional Ayurvedic therapies are used by 80% of the world’s population for health care.[19] In the traditional system of medicine, plant medications can deliver the right activity, and combined extracts of plants are administered as drugs to treat a variety of ailments.[20]

The objective of this study was to further explore the information and indigenous usage of medicinal species growing in Arunachal Pradesh that have been utilized in Ayurvedic preparations. There are no authentic data to support the export potential of these crude drugs in Arunachal Pradesh. The Himalayas are legendary for numerous life-saving and rejuvenating medicinal plants. Since the dawn of history, they have been recognized as a trustworthy source of essential pharmaceuticals. The Eastern Himalayan region of Arunachal Pradesh is the world’s 12th mega biodiversity hotspot. A significant number of plant species are classified by the state as having therapeutic uses. These plants are found at multiple spatial scales and vegetation types, including in a wide range of climatic situations. According to the forest type and zone where they grow, they are categorized as tropical, temperate, or alpine. It is also considered as a treasure trove of medicinal plants, the majority of which are still to be studied and provide several scientific opportunities in the practice of 28 major ethnic groups and 110 sub-ethnic groups.[21] Arunachal Pradesh’s flora and Ayurvedic literature revealed a total of 169 plant species belonging to 146 genera and 68 families used in the preparation of classical formulations as per Ayurvedic principles.


  Materials and Methods Top


A classical literature survey has been carried out to enlist the Ayurvedic medicinal plants referred in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia and Ayurvedic Formulary of India.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16] The list of Ayurvedic plants has been compared with the materials for the flora of Arunachal Pradesh.[22],[23],[24] Each plant’s botanical nomenclature has been updated in accordance with The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) principles and rules, and authentic taxonomic web links such as the plant list and world flora.[25],[26],[27]' Medicinal uses of each plant are listed from the classical literature.[28],[29] The collected data has been tabulated systematically as botanical name, family, habitat, Ayurvedic name, part used and medicinal uses.


  Results and Discussion Top


The Ayurvedic importance of plant species was compared with the conventional literature, where the plant species are arranged in alphabetical order. The collected data have been systematically presented as name of the species, family, habitat, Ayurvedic name, part used, and medicinal properties. A total of 169 plant species are classified into 146 genera and 68 families [Table 1]. It should be noted that tribal and traditional healers use most of the plants from their surroundings and nearby forests. The maximum number of species has been found in the families are Leguminosae (21 spp.), followed by Poaceae (12 spp.), Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae (8 spp. each), Cucurbitaceae (7 spp. each), Apocynaceae (6 spp. each), Malvaceae, Euphorbiaceaee and Compositate (5 spp. each), Rutaceae, Moraceae, Combrataceae and Amaranthaceae (4 spp. each), Solanaceae, Ranunculaceae, Piperaceae, Lauraceae and Acanthaceae (3 spp. each), Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Aracaceae, Berberidaceae, Bignonaceae, Brassicaceae, Lythraceae, Meliaceae, Myricaceae, Phyllanthaceae and Rubiaceae (2 spp. each) and other families like Acoraceae, Araceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asparagaceae, Cannabaceae, Capparaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Colchicaceae, Convolvulaceae, Costaceae, Cyperaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fumariaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Juglandaceae, Lecythidaceae, Linaceae, Loganiaceae, Loranthaceae, Magnoliaceae, Malpighiaceae, Menispermaceae, Myrtaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Nymphaceae, Oleaceae, Oxalidaceae, Papavaraceae, Pedaliaceae, Pinaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Portulacaceae, Primulaceae, Rhamnaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae were representing one species each.
Table 1: List of medicinal plants of Arunachal Pradesh used in classical Ayurvedic preparations

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Arunachal Pradesh has the availability of mishraka dravyas used in Ayurvedic formulation. Dashamoola plants (Aegle marmelos, Premna serratifolia, Oroxylum indicum, Streospermum chelonoides and Gmelina arboroea) and valli panchamula (Curcuma longa) are indicated in the treatment of respiratory disorders like cough, headache, inflammation,fever and anorexia. Kantaka panchamula (Barleria prionitis and Asparagus racemosa) and truna panchamula (Saccharum spontaneum and Saccharum officinarum) are indicated in disorders of diabetes mellitus and for cases of infertility. Madhyama panchamula (Boerharia diffusa and Ricinus communis) and Panchavalkala (Ficus bengalenis, Ficus religiosa and Ficus lacor) are acts as Kaphavatahara. Panchapallava, (Citrus limonum and Aegle marmelos), Triphala (Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica), trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum and Zingeber officinale) and trimada (Embelia ribes ,Cyperus rotundus and Plumbago zeylanica) are indicated in eye disorders, bleeding disorders, skin diseases,and chronic fever. Trijataka and chaturjataka (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Elettaria cardamomum and Cinnamomum tamala ) are used widely for bad odour of mouth and as a carminative. Panchatikta (Azadirachta indica, Justacia adhatoda and Tricosanthes dioica) are indicated in fever, skin diseases and bleeding disorders. Amlapanchaka (Zizyphus jujuba, Punica granatum ,Tamarindus indica and Garcinia pedunculatus) and trikarsika (Zingiber officinale , Aconitum heterophyllum and Cyperus rotundus) indicated in nausea and to improve the appetite. Chaturbhadraka (Zingiber officinale, Aconitum heterophyllum and Cyperus rotundus) are used as carminative and anti-inflammatory.[28],[29]

Currently, 80% of people in developing countries depend mainly on plant-based medications for their health-care needs, and 30% of drugs sold worldwide contain compounds derived from plant material that is harvested from the wild. In the Ayurvedic classical literature, medicinal plants are used in a variety of ways to treat various diseases. The enlisted herbal drugs are used by tribes in different methods for formulations.

These ancient Ayurvedic formulations from crude drugs have been used for managing many diseases. This type of study boosts current knowledge about the ancient formulary of the Indian medicinal system and paves the way for further investigations on such formulations. In recent decades, there has been a vigorous effort within India to conserve, document, and promote the knowledge and awareness of these plant drugs formulations and to develop pharmacological research programs for the benefit of traditional and modern medicinal systems.


  Conclusion Top


Ayurveda has the potential to play a significant role in the treatment and prevention of disease with no adverse effects. This is due to the reason that most of the Ayurvedic formulations are prepared with plant origin as raw material. Many industrial processing units and pharmaceutical industries could benefit by this information, which has been compiled and presented in a systematic manner. Results of the present study suggest that forest resources continue to play a vital role in the health-care system. Therefore, there is a need to create awareness in the local communities about the importance of conserving potential herbal resources and urging pharmaceutical companies to use them responsibly. These ethnomedicinal plants with immense industrial use can bring drastic economic change for the growth and development of the population of Arunachal Pradesh.

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi, Parul University, Gujarat and the University of Mysore for their encouragement and support.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
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