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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 200-205

Standard manufacturing procedure of Yava kshara (alkali preparation from Hordeum vulgare L.) with cotton wick method


Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission04-Aug-2021
Date of Acceptance08-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication17-May-2022

Correspondence Address:
Punam Aggarwal
Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdras.jdras_42_21

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  Abstract 

Background: Ayurveda deals with minerals, metals, and herbs in therapeutics that have been classified into several groups. Among them, Yava kshara (alkali preparation made with the whole plant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a type of Kshara (alkaline preparation) that is useful in various diseases. Addition of cotton wick in the procedure seems to facilitate the process and increase the yield. However, its actual utility is not yet reported. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) of Yava kshara by using the cotton wick method. Materials and Methods: The method of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India was followed with addition of cotton wick to decant the liquid layers. Yava panchanga (whole plant—root, stem, leaf, flower, and seed of H. vulgare L.) was collected from the fields of Derwala, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan and authenticated at the National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi. Plant was dried and converted into ashes, washed for three times, and the process of decantation by cotton wick method was repeated to obtain alkaline preparation. Results: An average of 11.72% w/w Yava kshara was obtained from the first filtrate. The second and third filtrates yielded 2.9% and 1.26%, respectively. Conclusion: Addition of cotton wick facilitates decanting process and obtaining clear liquids. The yield is comparatively higher than the earlier reports.

Keywords: Alkaline preparation, Hordeum vulgare L., kalpana, kshara, yava


How to cite this article:
Aggarwal P, Galib R, Prajapati PK. Standard manufacturing procedure of Yava kshara (alkali preparation from Hordeum vulgare L.) with cotton wick method. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2021;6:200-5

How to cite this URL:
Aggarwal P, Galib R, Prajapati PK. Standard manufacturing procedure of Yava kshara (alkali preparation from Hordeum vulgare L.) with cotton wick method. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jul 7];6:200-5. Available from: http://www.jdrasccras.com/text.asp?2021/6/4/200/345396




  Introduction Top


Traditional herbal medicines are plant-derived materials with minimal or no processing that have been used for various disorders. Traditional herbal medicines are getting significant attention in global health.[1] Alkaline substances obtained from the water-soluble ashes of herbal drugs are known as alkaline preparation. Various alkaline preparations have been mentioned in the management of diseases and Yava kshara (alkali preparation made with the whole plant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one among them. Alkaline preparation is indicated in diseases that are difficult to treat.[2] They are also said to minimize complications and reduce recurrences of diseases. Variations in opinions in the methods of preparation including ratio of ash and water, duration of soaking, filtration pattern, specifications for the nature of vessels, and cloth folding are found in different classics.[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10] However, the description of cotton wick method with repeated washes is not found in Ayurveda classics. Considering this, an attempt has been made to use cotton wick in the method of preparation of Yava kshara and observe its importance on the outcome in different washes.


  Materials and Methods Top


Preparation of Yava kshara

The whole process is divided into the below sections.

  • • Collection of Yava panchanga (whole plant—root, stem, leaf, flower, and seed of H. vulgare L.)


  • • Preparation of Yava kshara



    • ➢ Preparation of ash


    • ➢ Preparation of Kshara jala


    • ➢ Evaporation of Jala




Collection of Yava panchanga

Fresh Yava panchanga (60 kg) was collected from the field of Derwala, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan during March 2019. The drug was authenticated at the National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi (NISCAIR/RHMD/Consult/2019/3407-08-1) for its authenticity. The drug was cleaned to remove physical impurities and allowed to dry completely in shade.

Preparation of Yava kshara

Yava kshara was prepared by following the procedure mentioned in API[11] with slight modification (the process of decantation by cotton wick method was repeated to obtain Yava kshara).

Preparation of ash

Completely dried whole plant was ignited and allowed to burn completely in an open iron pan on April 15, 2019. After self-cooling, greyish-black colored ash was collected [Figure 1]A–D.
Figure 1: Different phases of Yava kshara preparation: (A) plants in field, (B) washed and cleaned plant for drying, (C) burning of Yava panchanga in open vessel, (D) ash, (E) addition of water into ash, (F) maceration of ash, (G) decantation process by cotton wick, (H) Kshara jala, (I) evaporation of Kshara jala, (J) water level, (K) slurry creamish material, and (L) Yava kshara

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Preparation of Kshara jala

One kg ash was taken in a stainless steel vessel and six times of reverse osmosis (RO) water was added. Contents were mashed thoroughly with hand and left undisturbed for overnight. On the next day morning, the supernatant layers were decanted by cotton wick into another vessel. This was further filtered through three folded cotton cloth and labeled as Filtrate-1. The residual ash was treated in a similar way by addition of 6000 mL of RO water. The filtrate obtained at the end of this procedure is labeled as Filtrate-2. Further, the residue obtained at the end of second treatment was added with 6000 mL of RO water, processed to obtain Filtrate-3. All the three filtrates were individually subjected to heat to evaporate water content to obtain Kshara. Considering preparation of three filtrates as one batch, total five batches were prepared [Figure 1E–H].

Evaporation of Kshara jala

Individual batches of Kshara jala were taken in steel vessels and heated over the induction heater till the entire water portion gets evaporated [Figure 1I–L].


  Observations and Results Top


60-kg fresh Yava panchanga was collected from the field during March 2019. After complete drying, the weight observed was 40 kg. It took 12 days for complete drying (the atmospheric temperature was 38°C). The completely dried plant was burnt to prepare ashes. As the material was completely dried, it burnt very quickly. Comparatively, seeds took more time to burn than other parts of Yava. After self-cooling, 6 kg of greyish-black colored ash was obtained that was presented with a characteristic taste.

The 1 kg ashes were added with 6000 mL RO water, processed as defined in the classics with addition of cotton wick to obtain Kshara jala. An average of 4582-mL Kshara jala was obtained in first wash followed by 5903.5 mL and 5726 mL in second and third wash, respectively [Table 1].
Table 1: Results obtained during preparation of Yava kshara jala

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The obtained Kshara jala was salty to taste with characteristic odor, golden yellowish color and slimy on touch. A creamish colored slurry material was obtained and it was kept in oven at 50°C for drying. Finally, a creamish white colored Kshara was obtained. The Kshara was stored in an air-tight glass container.

The temperature of Kshara jala during the phase of evaporation was observed at regular intervals of an hour and results are recorded at [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Temperature at different levels of evaporation in °C

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On evaporation, the golden yellowish Kshara jala was gradually turned to creamish white semisolid mass with aggregation and creaking sounds. Although second decanted Kshara jala was pale white in color and on evaporation, it turned into brownish semisolid mass. The third filtrate was black in color and it turned to blackish semisolid mass on evaporation. An average of 11.72% Kshara was obtained in the processing of the first wash. However, the second and third washes yielded 2.9% and 1.26%, respectively [Table 2]. This implies that the sediments at the end of the first wash need not to be discarded and should be washed repeatedly. Although attempts of further washings were failed to yield significant Kshara, hence after the third wash the sediments were discarded.
Table 2: Yield of Yava kshara

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Preliminary analysis

Preliminary physicochemical parameters including loss on drying at 110°C,[12] acid insoluble ash,[13] pH,[14] iron (as Fe),[15] sodium (as Na), potassium (as K),[16] and chlorine (as Cl)[17] were carried out as per standard guidelines of API, at Arbro Pharmaceuticals Private Limited [Table 3].
Table 3: Comparative results of physico-chemical parameters

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  Discussion Top


Alkaline preparations are important therapeutic agents being used in Ayurveda since ages. For example, more than 30 varieties of alkaline preparation, about 100 prescriptions where alkaline preparation as a component, have been mentioned in Charaka samhita that signifies the importance of its use in therapeutics.

However, a uniform method of its preparation is not found in the classical literature. Variations in the water proportion, sedimentation time, and filtering mechanism are found in different classics. For example, Acharya Sushruta suggested six times water and 21 times of filtrations,[3] whereas Rasatarangini advised addition of four times of water, maceration for 3 h, and filtration through three-folded cloth.[6] Few classics advised keeping the contents for over the night in an undisturbed environment.[18] The pharmaceutical procedure was done considering the guidelines mentioned at Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia with addition of cotton wick in the process. Use of cotton wick in decantation process was not referred in any of the classics, but was adopted in the current experiment considering the advantages.

Ideally, matured whole plant is to be collected for the process. Caution is to be exercised while collecting the plant to avoid other species like Triticum sativum L. (wheat). Whole plant should be cleaned properly. Foreign particles, soil, mud, and other sticky material should be removed meticulously and dried in shade.

Burning on plain ground also can be done, but this may yield ashes contaminated with soil. To avoid this, the dried plant parts were burnt in an open pan. This also facilitates frequent shifting of the burning material within the container. Instead of burning entire batch at a time, it is always advisable to burn the dried material in increments. After catching fire, the plant should be added little by little into the fire and sufficient amount of time is to be given for complete burning. Intermittent stirring should be done for complete combustion. Ash should be collected after self-cooling.

Freshwater (preferably RO) should be used for each wash to avoid addition of inorganic salts present in tap water. Ash should be rubbed well in water for proper mixing and maximum dissolution of the contents that further facilitate yielding maximum alkaline preparation. Then the contents should be left undisturbed allowing the insoluble contents to settle down for overnight.

Cotton wick should not touch the surface of ash while decanting the liquids. Non-reactive stainless steel vessel should be used during evaporation of Kshara jala to prevent possible chemical reactions. Continuous mild to moderate heat should be given. During final stages of heating, continuous stirring should be done to prevent burning and sticking. As alkaline preparation is hygroscopic in nature, it should be stored in air-tight glass containers to prevent atmospheric reactions. All analytical parameters of Yava kshara were within the range except acid insoluble ash which was more than 1%, which may be due to the nature of soil from where the plant was collected. The equipment specifications are placed [Table 4].
Table 4: Equipment’s with their specifications

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Few studies were published using 21,[19] 7,[19],[20] and single[19] filtration which suggests that there is not much difference between the percentages yield of alkaline preparations. The maximum average yields obtained from studies were 7.93% and 11.72%. In this study, the average yield of Yava kshara in three decantation is 15.88% which was higher than other published studies.


  Conclusion Top


An average of 11.72% Yava kshara was obtained with the first filtrate, whereas 2.9% and 1.26% in second and third filtrates. Addition of cotton wick facilitates the processing and yields clear Kshara jala. Considering the least amount of yield against the strenuous exercises and prolonged time, it is concluded that further washings are not advisable in the manufacturing of Yava kshara.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
  References Top

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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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