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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 177-192

Documentation of ethnomedicine used for livestock health care in Kalaburagi district, Karnataka


Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Botany, Gulbarga University, Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission20-Oct-2021
Date of Acceptance11-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication25-Mar-2022

Correspondence Address:
Mrs. Manjula A Rathod
Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Botany, Gulbarga University, Kalaburagi 585106, Karnataka.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdras.jdras_68_21

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  Abstract 

AIM: This work was designed to undertake documentation and explore ethnomedicine for the treatment of livestock’s health care in Kalaburagi through an ethnobotanical survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The documentation of ethnomedicine was recorded through ethnobotanical survey by conducting field trips from April 2015 to March 2018 in different Thanda and villages of Kalaburagi district, Karnataka. During the survey traditional practitioners, elderly people, livestock owners, formers, and headman of different Thanda and villages were interviewed for the responses regarding ethnomedicine practices. RESULTS: A total 71 of flowering plants from 41 families and 68 genera were involved in the treatment of common livestock’ ailments such as maggot wounds, cuts and wounds, microbial infections, inflammation, bone fracture, gout, joints pain, arthritis, skin diseases, itching, kidney disorders, acidity, cough and cold, throat infection, indigestion, dysentery, bloat, lack of appetite, stomach problems, intestinal worms, foot and mouth disease, weakness and animal bites. The leaves were mostly used in treatment followed by fruits, seeds, root, stem, bark, rhizome, flower, bulb, latex, and whole plant, respectively. The oral administration of juice, decoction, raw, and powder was either given singly or mixed with water, milk, curd, oil, ghee, and honey, whereas pastes of some plant parts were locally applied. CONCLUSION: The ethnobotanical survey showed considerable diversity of ethnomedicine used for livestock health care. It was important to explore sustainable use of natural resources for human as well as animal health care, as they are abundantly available in nature in the form of medicinal plants. Obtained data were compared with available literature of different regions of Karnataka and it was observed that many of these uses were not recorded earlier. This study will be helpful to explore more therapeutic uses of plants for livestock’s and may provide a lead in the novel herbal remedies.

Keywords: Ailments, crude drugs, documentation, ethnomedicine, Kalaburagi, livestock, plants, practitioners


How to cite this article:
Rathod MA, Mathad P. Documentation of ethnomedicine used for livestock health care in Kalaburagi district, Karnataka. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2021;6:177-92

How to cite this URL:
Rathod MA, Mathad P. Documentation of ethnomedicine used for livestock health care in Kalaburagi district, Karnataka. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Sep 27];6:177-92. Available from: http://www.jdrasccras.com/text.asp?2021/6/3/177/340874




  Introduction Top


Approximately 80% of the world population use traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, to cure illnesses and ailments.[1] In developing countries and rural societies, the use of medicinal plants is in both a valuable resource and a necessity, and furthermore it provides a real alternative for primary health-care systems.[2],[3],[4],[5],[6] Plants are important sources of therapeutic drugs and play a significant role in the survival of the tribal and ethnic communities. India is rich in cultural and floristic diversity and also a storehouse of ethnobotanical knowledge. Large sections of the Indian population still rely on plant-based medicines as they are abundantly available, economical, and have little or no side effects. In addition to their cultural acceptability of late medicinal plants have gained global importance in the alternative healthcare system, for their proven and effective curative properties. Certain plant drugs used in modern medicine have ethnobotanical background.[7],[8],[9] Ethnobotanical studies are very important to reveal the past and present culture about plants in the world. India is one of the treasure houses of medicinal plants in the world. The survey of medicinal plants in a particular area is important to conserve the traditionally important medicinal values plants of that particular landscape.[10],[11] Livestock’s comprises a major part of the Indian economics, livestock owners in far-flung remote areas still depend on plants and animal products for curing various veterinary ailments.[12],[13] India has more traditional knowledge on the ethnoveterinary medicines. People living in the remote area know that these herbal remedies are a valuable source of natural products for human health and animal healthcare.[14] In Indian agriculture, livestock plays a key role in the farmer’s life; they provide not only farm power, rural transport, manure, fuel, milk, and meat, but also play a major role in the rural economy by providing income and employment to the small hold farmers and other weaker sections of the society. The indigenous knowledge of the veterinary health-care system acquired by traditional herbal healers and elderly learned farmers is orally transformed from one generation to another.[15] The information generated about the medicinal use of plant species from folklore healers can also be implemented in clinical practice and medical research for the development of effective treatment modalities for the diseases prevalent in the current era.[16],[17] From the literature survey, it was found that no work was carried out on the livestock health care in this region; hence, research was designed to undertake documentation and explore ethnomedicine for treatment of livestock’s health-care needs in Kalaburagi Karnataka.


  Materials and Methods Top


Study area

Gulbarga, officially known as Kalaburagi,[18] is one of the 30 districts and nowadays known as Sun City in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the administrative headquarters of Gulbarga district and is the largest city in the Hyderabad-Karnataka, region of North Karnataka.[19]

Geography

The entire district is on the Deccan Plateau, and the elevation ranges from 300 to 750 m above MSL. It covers an area of 192 km² with Latitude: 17.320486, DMS Lat: 17° 19′ 13.7496′′ N, Longitude: 76.839752, DMS Long: 76° 50′ 23.1072′′ E, UTM Easting 695,521.10, and UTM Northing 1,915,944.14. Two main rivers, the Krishna and Bhīma, flow through the district. The predominant soil type is black soil. The district has many tanks, which irrigate the land along with the river. The main crops are toor jowar, groundnuts, rice, and pulses [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Study area

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Climate

Kalaburagi has a hot dry climate. with temperatures ranging from 8°C to 45°C and an annual rainfall of approximately 750 mm.[20]

Data collection

The documentation of ethnomedicine was recorded through ethnobotanical survey by conducting field trips from April 2015 to March 2018 in randomly selected Thanda and villages of seven taluka; namely, Kalaburagi, Aland, Afzhalpur, Chitapur, Chincholi, Sedam, and Jevargi of Kalaburagi district. During survey, traditional practitioners, elderly people, livestock owners, farmers, and headman of different Thanda and villages were interviewed for the responses regarding ethnomedicine used for the treatment of livestock health-care needs. The collected plant materials were brought to the laboratory and made into herbaria and the plant like Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague, which was not grown in Kalaburagi and used as a crude drug as well as spices was not made into herbarium.

User value

The use-value shows the importance of local medicinal plants. It was calculated by using the following formula:[21],[22],[23]



where Ui is the number of uses mentioned by each informant for a given species and N is the total number of informants.

Informants’ consensus factor

The informants’ consensus factors of ethnomedicinal plants were calculated as follows:[21]



where Nur is the number of use reports for a particular illness category and Nt is the number of species cited for the same particular illness category by all informants

Fidelity level

The Fidelity levels of ethnomedicinal plants were calculated as follows:[21]



where Ns is the number of informants that claimed plant species for a particular illness category and N is the total number of informants who reported the same plant for any illness (Alexiades[22]).

Statistical analysis

The results of user value, informants’ consensus factor, and fidelity level were calculated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Microsoft Excel.


  Results Top


This work was carried out to explore and document the ethnomedicine involved for treatment of livestock’s health care in Kalaburagi, Karnataka. During ethnobotanical survey medicinal practices of various Thanda and village peoples like local practitioners, elderly people, livestock owners, formers belonging to different communities like Bhuvi, Kuruba, Kabbalig, Vakkalig, Gond, Gowda, Valmiki, Linagayat, Muslims, and Lambani of Kalaburagi district. Ethanobotanical survey was performed in their local language using standard questionnaire. A total of 56 people between 33 and 67 age groups were interviewed, which included 30 male and 09 female traditional practitioners and 17 male livestock owners. The information collected from practitioners about local and scientific name of the plant, part involved, method of drug preparation (paste, powder, juice, or decoction), dosage, and duration of the treatment used to treat various ailments of livestock’s was recorded.

The results revealed that the 71 flowering plants from 41 families and 68 genera were involved in the treatment of common livestock’ ailments such as cuts and wounds, maggot wounds, microbial infections, intestinal worms, bone fracture, arthritis, joints pain, inflammation, swelling, itching, tooth infection, cough and cold, throat infection, urinary infection, skin diseases, foot and mouth disease, respiratory problems, asthma, lack of appetite, stomach problems, indigestion, constipation, abortifacient acitivity, jaundice, indigestion, weakness, acidity, bloat, conjunctivitis, dysentery, snakebite scorpion sting, animal bites, and lice eradication [Table 1].
Table 1: Ethno medicinal plants used for livestock health care in Kalaburagi district

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The user values of the plant were calculated by using the following formula: no. of uses mentioned by each informant for a given species by each informant /total no. of informant s ×100. For example, Abrus precatorius was reported as abortifacient and reported by five informants so user value was 20% (1/5 × 100) as tabulated in [Table 2].
Table 2: Informants’ consensus factor[19] and Fidelity level[19] of ethno medicinal plants used for livestock health care in Kalaburagi district

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The leaves were mostly used in treatment followed by fruits, seeds, roots, bark, stem, flower, rhizome, bulb, latex, and whole plant, respectively. The oral administration of juice, decoction, raw, and powder was either given singly or mixed with water, milk, curd, oil, ghee, and honey, whereas pastes of some plant parts were locally applied. The habit-wise distribution of plants include (33), tree (21), shrub (08), vine (05), climber (04), and creeper (01) were used [Figure 2]. The important families include Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae, Liliaceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Verbenaceae, Zygophyllaceae, and Zinziberaceae, [Figure 3] shows photos of some ethnomedicinal plants.
Figure 2: Different forms of ethnomedicinal plants

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Figure 3: Photographs of some ethnomedicinal plants used for livestock health care: (A) Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f., (B) Andrographis paniculata Nees., (C) Agave americana L., (D) Boerhavia diffusa L., (E) Centilla asiatica (L.) Urban., (F) Citrus lemon (L.) Burm. f., (G) Cassia auriculata (L.) Roxb., (H) Euphorbia tirucalli L., (I) Hibiscus cannabenis L., (J) Opuntia dillenii (Kaw-Gawl.) Haw., (K) Morinda pubescens Roxb., (L) Plumbago zyalanica L., (M) Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov., (N) Tagetes erecta L., (O) Tamarindus indica L., (P) Tinospora cardifolia Willd. Miers., (Q) Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., and (R) Tribulus teristries L.

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Informants’ consensus factor:

Informants’ consensus factor (FIC) values help in finding important herbal remedies for treating various ailments in particular areas and search of new bioactive compounds [Table 3].
Table 3: User value of ethno medicinal plants used for livestock health care

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Fidelity level

The fidelity levels of ethnomedicinal plants were used to identify key informants [Table 3].


  Discussion Top


The present work first time reported the ethno medicine used for the treatment of livestock from Kalaburagi district, Karnataka and many uses of plants are not reported earlier. Particularly, Capparis sepiaria L., Ipomoea obscura KAR-GAWL., Mangifera indica L., and Ricinus communis L., were used for bone fracture. Parthenium hysteroforus L., Ipomoea batatus (L.) Lamk., and Daucus carota L., for maggot wounds, Psidium guajava L. and Butea monosperma Lamk. for urinary infection, Balanities roxburghii L. and Vitex negundo L. for conjunctivitis, whereas Cocos nucifera L. for fungal infection. The literature showed all these plants were earlier used against various diseases. Capparis sepiaria L. (jaundice[23] and inflammation[24]), Ipomoea obscura KAR-GAWL. (dysentery[25],[26]), Psidium guajava L. (fever[13],[21],[27]), Mangifera indica L. (Placenta retention[10],[13],[21]), and Ricinus communis L. (fever wound), Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk. (antiviral and antibacterial[20]), Parthenium hysterophorus (fever, anemia[28]), Daucus carota (disease, stomach, and cramps[22]), Butea monosperma Lamk. (bone fracture,[29],[30] dysurea,[30] paralysis[15]), Balanities roxburghii L. (wounds and jaundice[32]), Vitex negundo L. (diarrhoea,[10],[15] dysentery,[21] headache,[18],[36] lice eradication[37]) and Cocos nucifera L. (diarrhea and skin problems[38]), respectively. This part of the discussion describes pharmacological uses of almost all the plants reported by various authors in past ethnobotanical studies all over world and compared with our reports collected from local residents. Both fresh and dry plant materials were used for the preparation of crude drugs and administered by both internally (oral) and externally for treating ailments. Large quantity of traditional healer, livestock owners, formers, and elderly people use ethnomedicine and there is a difference between plants used to treat one particular ailment to other and practitioner to practitioner. Some plants from present work as well as earlier literature from all over the world found to be same purpose. Gmelina arborea Roxb.[30],[39],[40],[41] was widely used for bone fracture in both humans and animals. Similarly, Cissus quadrangularis L.,,[27],[39],[40],[42],[43],[44],[45],[46]Calotropis procera (Aiton). Dryand,[12],[47]Calotropis gigantia (L.). Dryand.,[48]Dodonaea viscose (L.)Jacq.,[10],[12],[48],[49]Euphorbia tirucalli L.,[10] and Bambusa bambos L.[12] were well studied for bone fracture. Likewise, Semecarpus anacardium L.f.,[10],[13],[49]Azadirachta indica A. Juss.,[21]and Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.[30] were recorded for foot and mouth disease. Tagetes erecta L. was used for maggot wounds.[49]Alternanthera sessilis (L.) Rx. Br. ex. DC.[18] was used for skin disease. Whereas, Acalypha indica L.,[21],[38]Agave americana L.,[14],[50]Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.,[38]Allium sativum L.,[38]Euphorbia hirta L.,[21] and Tridax procumbens L.[12],[13],[21],[48],[50] were used for wounds. As per our reports Justcia adhatoda L. used in the treatment of (respiratory disorders), Tribulus teristries L. (wounds and microbial infection), Vitex negundo L. (lice eradication, conjunctivitis and bone fracture), Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (digestion), and Euphorbia hirta L. for (wounds) whereas earlier studies suggested all these plants used for diarrhoea.[10],[12],[15],[38],[49] Local practitioners of Kalaburagi use Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. for bone fracture and snake bite as per earlier study likewise study from Shimoga reports it for gasial detention,[30]Ricinus cumunies L. and Tridax procumbens L. used for scorpion bite but as per literature they were used for fever,[13] wounds.[10],[12],[13],[27],[48],[50] Present study reports Aerva lanata (L.) Juss used for insect bites as per literature it was used for snake bite.[12],[50] Our study reports Cassia auriculata (L.)Roxb. for intestinal worms, Achyranthes aspera Ver. argentea. (Lam.) Boiss for ticks and mites, and Abrus precatorius L. as abortifacient. As per literature they were used for wounds,[18],[49] (watering eyes[10] stomachache,[11] and sweelings,[10] enteritis,[51] tympanites,[9] and as vasoconstrictor[49]), respectively. Present work reports some common plants used for the treatment of skin disease Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., Gyanandropsis pentaphylla (L.). DC., Carica papaya L., Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees., Azadirachta indica A. Juss. As per earlier literature they were used for (itching[18],[49]), (tooth pain and eczema[12]), (stomachic and abortificient[9], (runny nose[10],[38] swelling of neck[27]), (worms,[13] fever[49]) and (foot and mouth disease, insect bites[10],[49] wound[38]) respectively. The plants like Boerhavia diffusa L. reported for urinary problems and jaundice[14]), Tylophora indica (Burn.f.) for lack of appetite[10] foot and mouth disease[36]), Ocimum sanctum L. for (cough and cold[15] teeth crack[49]), and Justcia adhatoda L. for (cough,[29] wound[30]) as per present work all these plants were used for different ailments but our study reports all these plants for respiratory disorders. Some of the studied plants were also used in combinations like Sesamum indicum L. mixed with Calotropis procera (Aiton). Dryand and curcuma longa L., Gmelina arborea Roxb. mixed with Cocos nucifera L. for bone fracture. However Tamarindus indica L., was used with Vitex negundo L. and Calotropis procera (Aiton). Dryand. for lack of appetite. As there no data available on livestock health care from Kalaburagi, further studies were needed.


  Conclusion Top


The ethnobotanical survey showed considerable diversity in ethnomedicine used for the livestock health care. It was very important to explore sustainable use of natural resources for the human and animal health care, as they are abundantly available in nature in the form of medicinal plants. Obtained data were compared with available literature of different regions of Karnataka and it was found that many of these uses were not recorded earlier. This study will be helpful to explore more therapeutic uses of studied ethnomedicinal plants for livestock’s and may provide a lead in the novel herbal remedies.

Acknowledgement

One of authors of this paper would like to thank UGC-RGNF for SC students for providing financial support to this study.

Financial support and sponsorship

UGC-RGNF (JRF).

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Tables

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