Assessing the effect of Shodhana (detoxification) process using chromatographic profiling (HPTLC, HPLC, LC-MS, and GC-MS) and estimation of toxic content Abrine in Abrus precatorius L. (Gunja) seeds
Ajay Kumar Meena1, Poorna Venktaraman2, Kusuma Ganji2, Neeraj Kumar1, Ravindra Singh3, Amit Kumar Dixit4, R Ilavarasan2, N Srikanth5, Kartar Singh Dhiman6
1 Regional Ayurveda Research Institute (RARI), CCRAS, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Captain Srinivasa Murthy Central Ayurveda Research Institute, CCRAS, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi, India
4 Central Ayurveda Research Institute, CCRAS, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
5 Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Janakpuri, New Delhi, India
6 Department of Shalakya Tantra, Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttra Pradesh, India
Dr. Ajay Kumar Meena
Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, CCRAS, Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Abrus precatorius L. (Gunja) is popular in Ayurveda system of medicine for its seeds, which are toxic because of the presence of Abrine–an alkaloid. It is used for the management of skin disease (Kustha), itching (kandu), cough (kasa), wound (vrana), and alopecia (indralupta). The shodhana process in Ayurveda is used for the purification and detoxification of toxic plant materials. This study aimed to observe the effect of the shodhana (purification) on phytochemicals and the Abrine content of A. precatorius L. (Gunja) seeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanolic and chloroform extracts of A. precatorius L. (Gunja) seeds are used to determine the Rf value through high-performance thin-layer liquid chromatography (HPTLC) technique. Chemical profiling of seeds was carried out using sophisticated modern chromatographic different such as HPTLC, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). RESULTS: The Rf value 0.45 corresponds to Abrine and confirms its presence in Gunja seeds. GC-MS and LC-MS results show the presence of 19–22 compounds. Results of HPLC analysis showed that Abrine content in chloroform extract and ethanol extract reduced to 30.36% and 10.20%, respectively, after shodhana process. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed the significance and effectiveness of shodhana process in reducing the toxins present in A. precatorius.