Aim: Critical review and botanical identification of drugs mentioned in the lexicon portion of the Jayadatta\'s text on horse diseases. Identify new synonyms of the drugs that are not mentioned in classical lexicons such as Bhāvaprakāśa, Kaiyyadeva, Madanapāla, Dhanvantari, etc.
Background: Aśvavaidyakanighantu is part of the text “Aśvavaidyakam” written by Jayadatta. It was mentioned as a separate chapter for a better understanding of the treatment part of “Aśvavaidyakam.” “Aśvavaidyakam” is a complete text on horses, which includes anatomy, auspicious and inauspicious characters, factors denoting age and life span, birthplace of horses, riding, care of pregnant and after delivery, dosages of medicines, drugs used in the treatments, seasonal changes and their relation, alkali treatment, venesection, eye diseases, errhine therapy, oliation, fomentation, usage of oils, ghee, arishtha (fermented medications); diseases of face, head, ear, etc. Nighantu part is mentioned in the 12th chapter covering 174 important drugs used in horse diseases.
Review results: One hundred and seventy-four important drugs used in the treatment of horse diseases were studied and their synonyms are highlighted. Critical notes on unique synonyms for this particular text are highlighted. All the drugs are botanically identified and a note has been given where the controversy prevailed.
Conclusion: A critical study on various synonyms mentioned in this text and listing out the drugs are definitely supporting Ayurvedic veterinary medicine, Ayurvedic pharmacopeia in general and Ayurvedic veterinary pharmacopeia in particular.
Clinical significance: The drugs mentioned in this article were used in various formulations to treat the diseases of the horse. Clinically these drugs have significance in treating the horse diseases. Further research on these drugs can enrich Ayurvedic veterinary pharmacopeia and find new treatment regimens in veterinary medicine.