Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences

Register      Login

VOLUME 4 , ISSUE 2 ( April–June, 2019 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of the Procurement Time of Kalmegh [Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees], through HPLC, Macro- and Microscopic Studies

Venkata N Cheemalapati, Neelima Sharma, Anupam K Mangal, Prabhu Rekha, Naraynam Srikanth, Soma N Murthy

Keywords : Andrographolide, Authentication and pharmacognosy, High-performance liquid chromatography, Kalmegh, Procurement time, Seasonal variation,Andrographis panniculata

Citation Information : Cheemalapati VN, Sharma N, Mangal AK, Rekha P, Srikanth N, Murthy SN. Evaluation of the Procurement Time of Kalmegh [Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees], through HPLC, Macro- and Microscopic Studies. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2019; 4 (2):47-55.

DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0075

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-06-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Aim: This study was conducted to validate the most suitable collection time for Kalmegh [Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees] by comparing the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) estimation of andrographolide in different seasons and pharmacognostical study of aerial parts of the plant. In Ayurvedic texts, procurement time of A. paniculata has not been mentioned; hence, this study was performed to validate the most suitable time of collection of the plant. Materials and methods: The aerial part of Kalmegh [Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees] was collected from the Regional Ayurveda Research Institute (RARI) garden from the same locations in the different seasons described in Ayurveda, i.e., Shishir or winter season (Jan to Feb), Vasant or spring season (Mar to Apr), Grishm or summer season (May to June), Varsha or rainy season (Jul to Aug), Sharad or autumn season (Sept to Oct), and Hemant or early winter season (Nov to Dec). The source of the collected plant materials was authenticated at National Vrkshayurveda Research Institute (NVARI), Jhansi Herbarium acronym code “JHS” (Accession no. 23598). Identification, comparative macroscopic and microscopic along with powder microscopy, of the aerial parts of A. panniculata in each season was carried out, in addition to the extraction of different solvents such as methanol, alcohol, and hydroalcoholic through Soxhlet, and its comparative quantitative analysis of the extracted material in all six seasons through HPLC for the different seasons at Captain Srinivas Murthy Regional Ayurveda Drug Development Institute, Chennai. Results: Extractive value of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees was found to be maximum, i.e., 1.3787 g (27.57%) of Varsha Ritu sample in methanol extract. The marker compound, andrographolide is high, i.e., 2.0312 to 2.2093 (% w/w) in Varsha ritu, through the HPLC analysis. The drug shows floral parts, i.e., pollen grains, epidermis of petals, fragments of trichome from the anthers in powder microscopy in Shishir, Sharad, and Hemant Ritu samples, whereas in Vasant, Grishm, and Varsha Ritu are devoid of floral parts. Conclusion: The study finds that the best procurement season for A. paniculata Nees. is Varsha Ritu for better therapeutic results in terms of assay of andrographolide.

PDF Share
  1. Mishra SK, Sangwan NS, Sangwan RS. Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh): a review. Pharmacogn Rev 2007;1(2):283–298.
  2. Thakur BS, Chunekar KC. Glossary of vegetable drugs in Brhattrayi, 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series Office; 1972. p. 287.
  3. Sarin YK. Principal crude herbal drugs of India, 2nd ed. Dehradun: Bishen singh Mahendra pal Singh; 2008. p. 170.
  4. Trivedi NP, Rawal UM. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant property of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) in BHC-induced liver damage in mice. Indian J. Exp. Biol 2001;39(1):41–46.
  5. Ram VJ. A Paniculata is also an ingredient in several polyherbal preparations used as hepatoprotectants in India, Herbal preparations as a source of hepatoprotective agents. Drug News Perspect 2001;14(6):353–363.
  6. Charakasamhita by Agnivesha revised by Charaka and Dridhbala with Ayurveddipika Commentary of Chakrapanidatta, edited by Yadavji Trikamji Acharya, 2nd ed., Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1984, Kalpasthan 1st chapter 10th Sloka. p. 653.
  7. Anonymous, quality standards of Indian medicinal plants: Vol. 8, 1st ed., New Delhi Indian Council of Medical Research; 2010. p. 61.
  8. Anonymous, ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, Part–I: Vol. 8, Govt. of India, Mnistry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of AYUSH; 2011. p. 104.
  9. Mudgal V, Khanna KK, Hajra PK. Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Vol. 2. Calcatta: Botanical Survey of India Calcatta; 1997. p. 287.
  10. Evans WC. Trease and evans pharrmacognosy, 15th ed. London: WB Saunders Ltd; 2002.
  11. Khandelwal KR. Practical pharmacognosy, 18th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2007.
  12. Khasim SM. Botanical microtechnique: principles & practice. New Delhi: Capital Publishing Company; 2002.
  13. Anonymous, Quality standard of Medicinal Plants. Medicinal Plants: Vol. 8, New Dehli, ICMR; 2010. pp. 55–67.
  14. Sudhakaran MV. Botanical pharmacognosy of andrographis paniculata (Burm.F.) Wall Ex Nees. Pharmacogn J 2012;4(32):1–10. DOI: 10.5530/pj.2012.32.1.
  15. Niranjan A, Tewari SK, Lehri A. Biological activities of kalmegh (Andrographis Paniculata Nees) and its active principles-a review. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2010;1(2):125–135.
  16. Katta V, Murthy PBS, Sukalak K, et al. Estimation of Adrographolide in Andrographis paniculata Herb, extracts and dosage forms. Int J Appl Sci and Eng 2007;5(1):27–39.
  17. Mishra S, Tiwari SK, Kakkar A, et al. Chemoprofiling of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh) for its Andrographolide content in Madhya pradesh, India. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2010;1(2):1–5.
  18. Chandana M, Gupta BK, Mazumder R, et al. HPLC method development and characterization of bio-active molecule isolated from Andrographis paniculata. Int J PharmTech Res 2011;3(3):1586–1592.
  19. Senthil KK, Thirugnanasambantham P, Viswanathan S, et al. An HPLC method for the estimation of andrographolide in rabbit serum. Indian J Pharmacol 2003;35(2):109–112.
  20. Sharma M, Sharma A, Tyagi S. Quantitative HPLC analysis of andrographolide in andrographis paniculata at two different stages of life cycle of plant. Acta Chim Pharm Indica 2012;2(1):1–7.
PDF Share