Introduction: In Ayurveda, metals and minerals are converted into biocompatible forms through specified classical procedures like Shodhana, Marana, etc. before their therapeutic use. Their frequent use without any noticeable side effects since ages is the ultimate proof of safety. But, safety and toxicity concerns are being raised by conventional researchers considering the presence of heavy metals in them. Noncompliance of pharmaceutical procedures as described in Ayurvedic classics is one possible cause for toxicity. At the same time, no standard analytical profiles are available for many metallic preparations.
Materials and methods: The present study aims to prepare and develop preliminary analytical profiles for Tamra bhasma (calcined copper) with and without Amritikarana on structural and elemental basis to address the role of the raw materials used during the preparation, compound form, nature and particle size of both samples.
Results and conclusion: The study revealed that Tamra Bhasma contains copper in a nano-crystalline structure having standard mean diameter ~12.72 μ in Tamra bhasma without Amritikarana and ~8.83 μ in Amritikarana sample. Copper sulfide form (CuS) associated with elemental sulfur was found to be a structural component in both samples.
Upadhyaya M. Ayurveda Prakaasha. 3/146, Varanasi, India: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2007. pp. 373
Chaudhari SY, Nariya M, Galib R & Prajapati PK. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper) prepared with and without Amritikarana, JAIM 2016 Mar; 7:23-29.
Jagtap CY, Ashok BK, Patgiri B, Prajapati PK, Ravishankar B. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity study of Tamra Bhasma (Incinerated Copper) prepared from Ashodhita (Unpurified) and Shodhita (Purified) Tamra in Rats. Indian J Pharm Sci 2013 May;75(3): 346-352.
Chaudhari SY, Jagatap CY, Thakkar JH, Galib R, Prajapati PK. Assesement of genotoxic potential of Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper). Int J Green Pharm 2015 July;9:175-179.
Vagbhata, Rasaratnasamucchaya, 5/53. New Delhi: Meherchand Lachamandas Publications; Reprint edition 2009. p. 101.
Adejumo OA, Akinbodewa AA, Ogunleye A, Agoi OF, Abolarin OS. A case report of acute kidney injury following the use of herbal vaginal pessary. Afr J Med Health Sci 2017 July;16:65-77.
Saper RB, Kales SN, Paquin J, Burns MJ, Eisenberg DM, Davis RB et al. Heavy Metal Content of Ayurvedic Herbal Medicine Products. JAMA 2004 Dec;292:2868-2873.
Sathe K, Ali U, Ohri A. Acute renal failure secondary to ingestion of Ayurvedic medicine containing mercury. Indian Journal of Nephrology 2013 July;23(4):301-303.
Vagbhata, Rasaratnasamucchaya, 5/13. New Delhi: Meherchand Lachamandas Publications; Reprint edition 2009. pp. 93.
Vagbhata, Rasaratnasamucchaya, 5/52. New Delhi: Meherchand Lachamandas Publications; Reprint edition 2009. pp. 101.
Vagbhata, Rasaratnasamucchaya, 5/53. New Delhi: Meherchand Lachamandas Publications; Reprint edition 2009. pp. 101.
Sharma S, Rasa Tarangini, 17/52. 11th ed. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas; Reprint 2009. pp. 422.
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part 2, Vol 1, 2007: Appendix-2 (2.2.7), Govt. of India: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; New Delhi, 2001:158. 14 Tripathi YB, Singh VP, Sharma GM, Sinha RK, Singh D. X Ray diffraction and microscopic analysis of Tamra Bhasma: An Ayurvedic metallic preparation. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 2003 April;2(2):107-117.
Jagtap CY, Prajapati PK, Patgiri BJ, Shukla VJ. Quality control parameters for Tamra Bhasma. Ancient Science of Life 2012 June;31(4):164-170.