Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 4 ( 2017 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Evaluation of Hypolipidemic Activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Leaf in Atherodiet-induced Wistar Albino Rats

Natarajan Thamizhselvam, Kandiyoor R Surabhi, Yalwar R Sanjayakumar, Kannanamkulam KG Vasanthakumar

Citation Information : Thamizhselvam N, Surabhi KR, Sanjayakumar YR, Vasanthakumar KK. Evaluation of Hypolipidemic Activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Leaf in Atherodiet-induced Wistar Albino Rats. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2017; 2 (4):281-288.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0024

License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Published Online: 00-12-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim: Hyperlipidemia has been ranked as one of the greatest risk factors contributing to prevalence and severity of coronary heart diseases. The present study has been taken up to evaluate hypolipidemic activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. leaf, as this plant is widely used by the local healers of South India for treatment of various illnesses. Materials and methods: The experiment was carried out in atherodiet-induced hyperlipidemia in Wistar Albino rats. The experiment duration was 28 days and it comprised six groups, such as healthy control, extract control, disease control, treatment group low dose, treatment group high dose, and standard drug (SD). The biochemical investigations including lipid profile with Atherogenic Index and Coronary Risk Index, and other metabolic parameters were evaluated using standard protocols. Histopathology studies for vital organs of animals were also carried out. Results: The study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of C. halicacabum L. leaf has significant hypolipidemic activity in the atherodiet-induced hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats when compared with the disease control group. The histopathology study also evidenced the safety of the extract. Conclusion: The study concluded that the hydroalcoholic extract of C. halicacabum L. has significant hypolipidemic activity at the prescribed dosages. Clinical relevance: As the plant has shown promising effect in the aspect of hypolipidemic activity, further studies have to be carried out for developing of new product as single drug and in the formulations of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy) system of medicines for management of hyperlipidemia.


PDF Share
  1. Gupta A, Sehgal V, Mehan S. Hyperlipidemia: an updated review. Int J Biopharma Toxicol Res 2011 May;1(1):81-89.
  2. Jaiswal J, Bhardwaj H, Rao CV, Sharma N. Hypolipidemic effect of Calotropis gigantea seeds extract on high fat diet induced atherogenic rats. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014 May;3(6):1139-1147.
  3. Warrier PK, Nambiar VPK, Ramankutty C. Indian Medicinal Plants: a compendium of 500 species. Vol. 1. Chennai: Orient Longman Publications; 2002. pp. 377-379.
  4. Thamizh Selvam N, Sanjayakumar YR, Anand M, Vasanthakumar KG, Nair PKS. Ethno medicinal value of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn: a review. World J Pharm Res 2013 Nov;2(6):3348-3355.
  5. Vinoth B, Manivasagaperumal R. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. Int J Curr Sci Technol 2013 Jan;2(Suppl 1):9-12.
  6. Shabi MM, Dhevi R, Gayathri K, Subashini U, Rajamanickam GV, Dubey GP. C. halicacabum (Linn): investigations on antiinflammatory and analgesic effect. Bulg J Vet Med 2009 Jan;12(3):171-177.
  7. Mariyappan M, Bharathidasan R, Madhanraj P, Paneerselvam A, Ambikapathy V. Antibacterial activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum and Melothria heterophylla. Asian J Pharm Res 2011 Oct-Dec;1(4):111-113.
  8. Bopanna KN, Bhagyalakshmi N, Rathod SP, Balaraman R, Kannan J. Cell culture derived Hemides musindicus in the prevention of hypercholesterolemia in normal and hyperlipidemic rats. Indian J Pharmacol 1997;29(2):105-109.
  9. Thamizh Selvam N, Prasannakumari K, Sanjayakumar YR, Surabhi KR, Venugopalan TN, Vasanthakumar KG, Acharya MV. Evaluation of hypocholesteremic activity of SPHAG—a poly herbal formulation in Wistar Albino rats. Int J Pharm Sci Res (IJPSR) 2015 Oct;6(10):1245-1249.
  10. Patil RH, Prakash K, Maheswari VL. Hypolipidemic effect of Celastrus paniculatus in experimentally induced hypercholesteremic Wistar rats. Indian J Clin Biochem 2010 Oct;25(4): 405-410.
  11. Maruthappan V, Shree KS. Hypolipidemic activity of haritaki (terminalia chebula) in atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2010 Apr;1(2): 229-235.
  12. Hamden K, Allouche N, Damak M, Elfeki A. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of phenolic extracts and purified hydroxyl-tyrosol from olive mill waste in vitro in rats. Chem Biol Interact 2009 Aug;180(3):421-432.
  13. Adeneye AA, Olagunju JA. Preliminary hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of the aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya Linn in Wistar rats. Biol Med 2009 Jan;1(1)1-10.
  14. Dibiasova M. Atherogenic index of plasma [log (triglycerides/ HDL-cholesterol)]: theoretical and practical implications. Clin Chem 2004 Jul;50(7):1113-1115.
  15. Alladi S, Shanmugasundaram KR. Induction of hypercholesterolemia by supplementing soy protein with acetate generating amino-acids. Nutr Rep Int 1989;40(5):893-899.
  16. Radha RK, Shereena SR, Divya K, Krishnan PN, Seeni S. In vitro propagation of Rubia cordifolia Linn., a medicinal plant of the Western Ghats. Int J Bot 2011 Mar;7(1):90-96.
  17. Vivekanandan L, Kolar AB, Edwin Raj E, Sisubalan N, Ghouse Basha M. In vitro regeneration and evaluation of genetic stability of Rubia cordifolia L.: an endangered medicinal plant of Pachamalai Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Eur Acad Res 2014 Oct;2(7):9994-10016.
  18. Khadke S, Rani S, Awad V, Meti N, Singh E, Kuvalekar A, Harsulkar A. An improved protocol for in vitro regeneration of Rubia cordifolia L. via organogenesis. IJPAES 2013 Oct- Dec;3(4):61-69.
  19. Goffin E, Ziemons E, De Mol P, De Madureira Mdo C, Martins AP, Da Cunha G, Philippe AP, Tits M, Angenot L, Frederich M. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of Tithonia diversifolia and identification of its main active constituent: Tagitinin C Thieme. J Plant Med 2002;68(6):543-545.
  20. Thongsom M, Chunglok W, Kuanchuea R, Tangpong J. Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Effects of Tithonia diversifolia aqueous leaves extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Adv Environ Biol 2013;7(9):2116-2125.
  21. Sharma R, Sharma HK. Ethnomedicines of Sonapur, Kamrup District, Assam. Indian J Trad Know 2010 Jan;9(1):163-165.
  22. Choudhury S, Sharma P, Choudhury MD, Sharma GD. Ethnomedicinal plants used by Chorei tribe of Southern Assam, North Eastern India. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012 Oct;S141-S147.
  23. Buragohain J. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the ethnic communities of Tinsukia district of Assam, India. Rec Res Sci Tech 2011 Aug;3(9):31-42.
  24. Borah PK, Gogoi P, Phukan AC, Mahanta J. Traditional medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in Upper Assam. Indian J Trad Know 2006 Oct;5(4):510-512.
  25. Kanjilal, UN.; Kanjilal, PC.; Das, A.; De, RN. Flora of Assam. Vol. 1-4. India: Govt. of Assam; 1934-1940.
  26. Joshi A, Sengar N, Prasad SK, Goel RK, Singh A, Hemalatha S. Wound healing potential of root extract of Albizzialebbeck. Planta Med 2013 Jun;79(9):737-743.
  27. Rodríguez M, Alberto M, Manca de Nadra M. Antibacterial effect of phenolic compounds from different wines. Food Control 2007;18:93-101.
  28. Nose K. Role of reactive oxygen species in the regulation of physiological functions. Biol Pharm Bull 2000 Aug;23(8):897-903.
  29. Finkel T, Holbrook NJ. Oxidants, oxidative stress and biology of ageing. Nature 2000 Nov 9;408(6809):239-247.
  30. Sen S, De B, Devanna N, Chakraborty R. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meynaspinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant. Chin J Nat Med 2013 Mar;11(2):149-157.
  31. Eldeen IMS, Van Staden J. In vitro pharmacological investigation of extracts from some trees used in Sudanese traditional medicine. S Afr J Bot 2007 Jul;73(3):435-440.
  32. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of ISM&H, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2002.
  33. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2003.
  34. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2004.
  35. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2005.
  36. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2006.
  37. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2007.
  38. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2008.
  39. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2009.
  40. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2010.
  41. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2011.
  42. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2012.
  43. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2013.
  44. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2014.
  45. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, 2015.
  46. Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, 2016.
  47. Tribal pockets of Nilgiris. Recordings of the field study of medicinal Flora and Health Practices, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1976.
  48. Preliminary Techno Economical Survey of Natural Resources and Herbal Wealth of Ladakh, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1976.
  49. Medico-Botanical Exploration of Phulbani and Koraput Districts of Orissa, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of ISM&H, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1996.
  50. Medico-Botanical Exploration of Puri District (Orissa), Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1989.
  51. Contribution to the Medico-Botany of East Godavari and West Godavari Districts of Andhra Pradesh, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1989.
  52. Glimpses of Medico-Botany of Bastar District (M.P.), Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1990.
  53. Medico-Ethno-botany of Sonebhadra District, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1993.
  54. Health Related Demography of the Tribes of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2010.
  55. Medico Botanical exploration of Sikkim Himalayans, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1991.
  56. Medico Botanical exploration of Uttarakhand, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1977.
  57. A Report on Medicinal plants of Kachchh (Gujarat), Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of ISM&H, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1998.
  58. Observations on Medico-Botany of Andaman Nicobar Islands, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1988.
  59. Medico-Botany of Andaman & Nicobar: Recent Study, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, 2016.
  60. Herbal wealth of Uttarakhand, Vol I, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, 2014.
  61. Herbal wealth of Uttarakhand, Vol II, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, 2015.
  62. Healing herbs of Himalaya, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2008.
  63. Herbal wealth of Western Ghats-Agasthyamalai, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, 2016.
  64. Kalender ME, Comez G, Sevinc A, Dirier A, Camci C. Leech therapy for symptomatic relief of cancer pain. Pain Med 2010 Mar;11(3):443-445.
  65. Rathi R, Rathi B. A case report of acute lymphoblastic leukemia – an ayurvedic approach. Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci 2014 Feb;3(3):48-51.
  66. Shukla S, Bharti AC, Hussain S, Mahata S, Hedau S, Kailash U, Kashyap V, Bhambhani S, Roy M, Batra S, et al. Elimination of high-risk human papillomavirus type HPV16 infection by 'Praneem' polyherbal tablet in women with early cervical intraepithelial lesions. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2009 Dec;135(12):1701-1709.
  67. Talwar GP, Sharma R, Singh S, Das BC, Bharti AC, Sharma K, Singh P, Atrey N, Gupta JC. BASANT, a polyherbal safe microbicide eliminates HPV-16 in women with early cervical intraepithelial lesions. J Cancer Ther 2015 Dec;6(14):1163-1166.
  68. Joshi JV, Paradkar PH, Jagtap SS, Agashe SV, Soman G, Vaidya AB. Chemopreventive potential and safety profile of a curcuma longa extract in women with cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011 12(12):3305-3311.
  69. Deshpande A, Tandon S, Deshpande N. Low resource screening method of precancerous lesions and its reversal by Triphala in teenage Indian population. Ayu 2014 Apr- Jun;35(2):160-167.
  70. Srivastava A, Agarwal R, Chaturvedi TP, Chandra A, Singh OP. Clinical evaluation of the role of tulsi and turmeric in the management of oral submucous fibrosis: A pilot, prospective observational study. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2015 Jan-Mar;6(1):45-49.
  71. Patel KR, Rajagopala M, Vaghela DB, Shah A. A pilot study on Ayurvedic management of oral sub mucous fibrosis. Ayu 2015 Nov;36(1):34-40.
  72. Gutknecht N, et al. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop of Evidence Based Dentistry on Lasers in Dentistry. Quintessence Publishing Co. Ltd. 2007.
  73. Duck FA. Physical properties of tissue. Academic Press London- Toronto, 1990.
  74. Ishii J, Fujita K, Komori T. Laser surgery as a treatment for oral leukoplakia. Oral Oncol 2003;39(8):759-69.
  75. Katzir A. Lasers and optical fibers in medicine. Academic Press, Inc, San Diego-Boston 1993.
  76. Nathan MI, Dumke WP, Burns G, Dill Jr FH, Lasher G. Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-n junctions. Appl Phys Lett 1962;1(3):62-64.
  77. Prahl SA. Optical absorption of hemoglobin. Oregon Medical Laser Center: http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/ index.html
  78. Strassl M, Kassenbacher A, Wintner E. Ultrashort laser pulses in dentistry. J Oral Laser Appl 2002;2(4):213-22.
  79. Stabholz A, Zeltzser R, Sela M, Peretz B, Moshonov J, Ziskind D. The use of lasers in dentistry: Principles of operation and clinical applications. Compend 2003;24:811-24.
  80. Kreisler M, Daublander M, Willershausen-Zonnchen B, d‘Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the survival rate of gingival fibroblast cell cultures. Laser Surg Med 2001a;28(5):445-50.
  81. Rastegar S, Jacques SL, Motamedi M, Kim BM. Theoretical analysis of equivalency of high- power diode laser and Nd:YAG laser for coagulation. Lasers in Dentistry, SPIE 1646:150-60, 1992.
  82. Theodoro LH, Haypek P, Bachmann L, Garcia VG, Sampaio JE, Zezell DM, Eduardo C de P. Effect of Er:YAG and diode laser irradiation on the root surface: Morphological and thermal analysis. J Periodontol 2003;74(6):838-43.
  83. White JM, Gekelman D, Shin K, Park X, Swenson T, Rouse B, Tran K, Bullard S, Scott- Beckles B, Oto MJSB, Yamamoto A. Laser interaction with dental soft tissues: What do we know from our years of applied scientific research? Lasers in Dentistry, SPIE 2002;4610:39-48.
  84. Adams TC, Pang PK. Lasers in Aesthetic Dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:833-60.
  85. Bach G, Neckel C, Mall C, Krekeler G. Conventional versus laser- assisted therapy of peri-implantitis: A five year comparative study. Implant Dent 2000;9:247-51.
  86. Clayman L, Kuo PC. Soft tissue excision techniques. In Clayman L, Kuo P. Lasers in Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry. Thieme Publ, Stuttgart 1997;63-83.
  87. Convissar RA, Diamond LB, Fazekas CD. Laser treatment of orthodontically induced gingival hyperplasia. Gen Dent 1996;44(1):47-51.
  88. Goharkay K, Moritz A, Wilder-Smith P, Schoop U, Kluger W, Jakolitsch S, Sperr W. Effects on oral soft tissue produced by a diode laser in vitro. J Oral Surg 1978;36:932-37.
  89. Olbricht SM, Stern RS, Tang SV, Noe JM, Arndt KA. Complications of cutaneous laser surgery: A survey. Arch Dermatol 1987;123(3):345-49.
  90. Pinheiro AL, Limeira Jr FA, Gerbi MEM, Ramalho LMP. Effect of 830 nm laser light on the repair of bone defects grafted with inorganic bovine bone and decalciûed cortical osseous membrane. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2003;21(6):383-88.
  91. Romanos GE. Atlas der chirurgischen Laserzahnheilkunde. Urban und Fischer Verlag, München 1999.
  92. Romanos GE, Nentwig GH. Present and future of lasers in oral soft tissue surgery: Clinical applications. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1996;14(4):179-84.
  93. Strauss RA. Laser management of discrete lesions. In : Laser applications in oral maxillofacial surgery. (Eds) Catone G A, Alling C C, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1997
  94. White JM, Goodis HE, Horton J, Gold S. Current status of lasers in soft tissue dental surgery. J Periodontol 1994;65(7):733-35.
  95. Yousuf A, Hossain M, Nakamura Y, Yamada Y, Kinoshita J, Matsumoto K. Removal of gingival melanin pigmentation with the semiconductor diode laser: A case report. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2000;18:263-66.
  96. Zeinoun T, Nammour S, Dourov N, Aftimos G, Luomanen M. Myofibroblasts in healing laser excision wounds. Lasers Surg Med 2001;28:74-79.
  97. Al-Watban FA, Zhang XY. The comparison of effects between pulsed and CW lasers on wound healing. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2004;22(1):15-18.
  98. Gutknecht N, Gogswaardt D, Conrads G, Apel C, Schubert C, Lampert F. Diode laser radiation and its bactericidal effect in root canal wall dentin. J Clin Las Med Surg 2000;57:57-60.
  99. Parkins F. Lasers in pediatric and adolescent dentistry. Dent Clin N Amer 2000;44:821-30.
  100. Santaella MR, Braun A, Matson E, Frentzen M. Effect of diode laser and fluoride varnish on initial surface demineralisation of primary dentition enamel: An in vitro study. Int J Paed Dent 2004;14:199-203.
  101. Tuner J, Hode L. The laser therapy handbook. Grängesberg 2004;231.
  102. Gherlone EF, Maiorana C, Grassi RF, Ciancaglini R, Cattoni F. The use of 980 nm diode and 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser for gingival retraction in fixed prostheses. J Oral Laser Applications 2004;4:183-90.
  103. Glauche CE, de Freitas PM, Vieira ND, Marques JL. Qualitative microanalysis of ions and ultrastructuralchanges in dentin exposed to laser irradiation. Lasers Surg Med 2005;36(4): 334-39.
  104. Gutknecht N, Zimmermann R, Lampert F. Lasers in periodontology: State of the art. J Oral Laser Applications 2001a;1:169-79.
  105. Kreisler M, Haj HA, d‘Hoedt B. Clinical efficacy of semiconductor laser application as an adjunct to conventional scaling and root planning. Lasers Surg Med 2005;37:350-55.
  106. Mester E, Spiry T, Szende B, Tota JG. Effect of laser rays on wound healing. Am J Surg 1971;22:532-35.
  107. Patruta S, Franz A, Beer F, Goharkhay K, Sperr W, Moritz A. In vitro stimulatory effect of diode laser on the secretion of tissue inhibitor of matrix mealloproteinases 1(TIMP-1) in human gingival fibroblast: A preliminary report. J Oral Laser Applications 2004;4(3):167-70.
  108. Silveira LB, Silveira JB, Ribeiro MS, Garrocho AA, Novelli MD, Marigo H, Growth EB, et al. In vivo study on mast cells behavior following low intensity visible and near infrared laser radiation (abstract 304). Lasers Surg Med 2002;82.
  109. Bach G, Koch HK, Hellerich U, Venzke T. Konventionelle Diodenlaser versus Hochpulstechnik. Laser Journal 1/2008:18-20.
  110. Deppe H, Horch HH. Laseranwendungen in der chirurgischen Zahn-,Mund-und Kieferheilkunde. Laser Zahnheilkunde 2007;4:219-22.
  111. Horch HH, Deppe H. Laser anwendungen im Mund-Kiefer- Gesichtsbereich. In Horch HH: Mund-Kiefer-Gesichtschirurgie. München: Elsevier 2007;797-820.
  112. Roodenburg JL, Witjes MJ, deVeld DC; Tan IB, Nauta JM: Lasers in dentistry. Use of lasers in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2002;109:470.
  113. Maiorana C, Salina S. Oral soft tissue pathologies: Long-term evaluation after laser treatment. J Oral Laser Appl 2001;1:20.
  114. Crippa R. Report on 103 cases of precancerous and other oral lesions treated with a diode laser. J Oral Laser Appl 2001;1:26.
  115. Bach G. Er:YAG versus Diode-Zwei Wellenlängen made in Baden-Württemberg. Laser Zahnheilkunde 2007;4:283-87.
  116. Andersen K. Laser technology- a surgical tool of the past, present and future. Aorn J 2003;78:794-802.
  117. Eichler J, Schneeweiss-Wolter C. Wirkung von Laserstrahlung auf Gewebe. MTA 1999;14:255.
  118. McKenzie AL. Physics of thermal processes in laser- tissue interaction. Phys Med Biol 1990;35:1175-209.
  119. Sullins KE. Diode laser and endoscopic laser surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2002;32:639-648.
  120. Svaasand LO, Boerslid T, Oeveraasen M. Thermal and optical properties of living tissue: Application to laser-induced hyperthermia. Lasers Surg Med 1985;5:589-602.
  121. Welch AJ, Motamedi M, Rastegar S, LeCarpentier GL, Jansen D. Laser thermal ablation. Photochem. Photobiol 1991;53: 815-23.
  122. Lippert BM, et al. Wound healing after laser treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Lasers Med Sci. 2003;18(1):36-42.
  123. Grossenbacher R. Laser surgery in the oral cavity. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1992;10(1):19-21.
  124. Guttenberg SA, Emery RW. Laser resurfacing and oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Dermatol. Surg 1999;25(6):519.
  125. Coleton S. Laser treatment of atypical oral pigmentation. A case report. NY State Dent J 2006;72(2):22-23.
  126. Damante CA, et al. Histomorphometric study of the healing of human oral mucosa after gingivoplasty and low-level laser therapy. Lasers Surg Med 2004;35(5):377-84.
  127. Eichler J, Eichler HJ. Laser. Springer Verlag, Berlin- Heidelberg- New York 1991.
  128. Manni J. Surgical diode lasers. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1992;10: 377-80.
  129. Pick RM, Powel GL. Lasers in dentistry, soft tissue procedures. Dent Clin North Am 1993;37:281-97.
  130. Scherer H, Fuhere A, Hopf J. Current status of laser surgery of benign diseases in the area of soft palate. Laryngol Rhinol Otol 1994;73:14-18.
  131. Morita T, Okamura Y, Ookub K, et al. A new instrument for hemostatic vascular management in endoscopic surgery: Diode laser(STATLaser-SDL) and it‘s hand piece (Dual Hook). J Clin Laser Med Surg 1999;17:57-61.
  132. Claus PN. Comparative study on CW mode versus pulsed mode in AlGaAs diode lasers. SPIE Proc 2001;4249:44-49.
  133. Krause F, Frentzen M. Dioden- Laser in der zahnmedizinischen Anwendung. DGL Zeitschrift für Laserzahnheilkunde 2007;3/ 07:151-58.
  134. Coluzzi DJ. Lasers and soft tissue curettage: An update. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2002;23:1104-111.
  135. Dederich DN. Laser curettage: An overview. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2002;23:1097-103.
  136. Schwarz F, Sculean A, Berakdar M, Szathmari L, Geoerg T, Becker J. In vivo and in vitro effects of an Er:YAG laser, a diode laser, and scaling and root-planning on periodontally diseased root surfaces: A comparative histologic study. Lasers Surg Med 2003;32:359-66.
  137. Fontana CR, Kurachi C, Mendonca CR, Bagnato VS. Temperature variation at soft periodontal and rat bone tissue during a medium- power diode laser exposure. Photomed Lasres Surg 2004;22:519-22.
  138. Gold SJ, Vilardi MA. Pulsed laser beam effect on gingiva. J Clin Periodontol 1994;21(6):391-96.
  139. Borrajo JL, Varela LG, Castro LG, Rodriguez-Nunez I, Torreira MG: Diode laser (980 nm) as an adjunct to scaling and root planning. Photomed Laser Surg 2004;22:509-12.
  140. Kreisler M, Al Haj H, Daublander M, Gotz H, Duschner H, Willershausen B, D‘Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on root surface in vitro. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2002;20:63-69.
  141. Meister J, Franzen R. Dentale Lasersysteme Teil II: Der Dioden- Laser. DGL Zeitschrift für Laserzahnheilkunde 2007;3/07: 185-89.
  142. Alam T, Dawasaz AA, Thukral N, Jangam D. Surgical diode laser excision for peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma: A case report and literature review. J Oral Laser Applications 2008;8:43- 49.
  143. Convissar RA. An overview of laser wavelength used in dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 2000;44:753-765.
  144. Kreisler M, Meier C, Stender E, Daubländer M, Willershausen- Zönnchen B, de Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the attachment rate of periodontal ligament cells: An in vitro study. J Periodontol Oct 2001;72(10):1312-17.
  145. Black P. Der Dentallaser in der oralen Chirurgie-Masterthese- Teil2 Laser Journal 1/2007: 16-21, 2007 146. Van Hillegersberg R: Fundamentals of Laser Surgery Eur J Surg Jan 1997;163(1): 3-12.
  146. Haina D, Landthaler M, Braun-Falco O, Waidelich W. Comparison of the maximum coagulation depth in human skin for different types of medical lasers. Lasers Surg Med 1987;7(4): 355-62.
  147. Sullins KE. Diode laser and endoscopic laser surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract May 2002;32(3):639-48.
  148. McKenzie AL. Physics of thermal processes in laser-tissue interaction. Phys Med Biol Sep 1990;35(9):1175-209.
  149. Reinisch L. Laser physics and tissue interaction. Otolaryngol Clin North Am Dec 1996;29(6):893-914.
  150. Coluzzi DJ. Fundamentals of dental lasers: Science and instruments. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:751-70.
  151. Maiorana C, Salina S. Versatility of superpulsed diode laser in oral surgery: A clinical report. J Oral Laser Appl 2006;6: 193-99.
  152. Gold SI, Villardi MA. Pulsed laser beam effects on gingiva. J Clin Periodontol 1994;21:391-96.
  153. Kamp M Halbleiterlaser. Vorlesung WS 2006, Technische Physik, Uni Würzburg 2006.
  154. Schäfer O. Die Entwicklung des Diodenlasers bis zur Digitalpulstechnik. Laser Journal 2/2008:6-7.
  155. Nanami T, Shiba H, Ikeuchi S, Nagai T, Asanami S, Shibata T. Clinical applications and basic studies of laser in dentistry and oral surgery. Keio J Med Dec.1993;42(4):199-201.
PDF Share