Introduction: A resurgence of interest in Ayurveda, other traditional systems of medicine, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has resulted from the preference of many consumers for products of natural origin. The potential benefits of plant-based medicines could lie in their high acceptance by patients, and efficacy and safety. The most prevalent users of traditional medicine are individuals who have refractory conditions and nonlife-threatening conditions that may be chronic viz. neurological disorders, arthritis, etc. The second-largest group of users is those struggling with chronic, potentially life-threatening diseases, such as cancer and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, etc. Both groups turn to Ayurveda and traditional system of medicine for a variety of reasons, such as management as the main treatment option and improved immune functioning, overall functioning, and quality-of-life (QoL) by coping with side effects from conventional therapies, and to relieve symptoms related to their illness. The upsurge in use of traditional system among cancer patients warrants evidence of safety and effectiveness for these interventions as concomitant to conventional cancer therapy.
Objective: This manuscript aims at a systematic review of published data on the effectiveness of Ayurveda/ herbal interventions as stand-alone or concomitant in the management of cancer.
Materials and methods: Literature search for clinical studies with specific terms was carried using search engines viz. Google scholar, PubMed, Ayush Research Portal, etc. and print journals, reports from May 2017 to June 2017.
Results: Various randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that ginger, honey, turmeric, and ashwagandha are effective as add-on in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), radiation mucositis, and fatigue. Moreover, single case reports and case–control studies also reported with positive outcomes for Ayurveda as stand-alone and add-ons to conventional treatment.
Conclusion: Evidence for effectiveness of Ayurveda as add-on concomitant to conventional cancer treatment is substantial in comparison with Ayurveda as stand-alone, and this may help to develop integrative Ayurveda oncology treatment protocols.
Pal SK. Use of alternative cancer medicine in India. Lancet Oncol 2002 Jul;3(7):394-395.
Kumar D, Goel NK, Pandey AK, Puri S. Complementary and alternative medicine use: epidemiological concerns and perceptions of cancer patients based on a pilot study. Int J Med Health Res 2016 Aug;2(8):40-46.
Kushavaha, VH. Charaka Samhita Part I reprint edition. Sutrasthana, Trishothiya Adhyaya, 18/44-47. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. p. 287.
Ryan JL, Heckler CE, Roscoe JA, Dakhil SR, Kirshner J, Flynn PJ, Hickok JT, Morrow GR. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCC CCOP study of 576 patients. Support Care Cancer 2012 Jul;20(7): 1479-1489.
Zick SM, Ruffin MT, Lee J, Normolle DP, Siden R, Alrawi S, Brenner DE. Phase II trial of encapsulated ginger as a treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Support Care Cancer 2009 May;17(5):563-572.
Panahi Y, Saadat A, Sahebkar A, Hashemian F, Taghikhani M, Abolhasani E. Effect of ginger on acute and delayed chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting: a pilot, randomized, open-label clinical trial. Integr Cancer Ther 2012 Sep;11(3): 204-211.
Konmun J, Danwilai K, Ngamphaiboon N, Sripanidkulchai B, Sookprasert A, Subongkot S. A phase II randomized doubleblind placebo-controlled study of 6-gingerol as an anti-emetic in solid tumor patients receiving moderately to highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Med Oncol 2017 Apr;34(4):69.
Arslan M, Ozdemir L. Oral intake of ginger for chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting among women with breast cancer. Clin J Oncol Nurs 2015 Oct;19(5):E92-E97.
Ansari M, Porouhan P, Mohammadianpanah M, Omidvari S, Mosalaei A, Ahmadloo N, Nasrollahi H, Hamedi SH. Efficacy of ginger in control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin- based chemotherapy. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 Jan;17(8):3877-3880.
Sanaati F, Najafi S, Kashaninia Z, Sadeghi M. Effect of ginger and chamomile on nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy in Iranian women with breast cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 Aug;17(8):4125-4129.
Lua PL, Salihah N, Mazlan N. Effects of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer. Complement Ther Med 2015 Jun;23(3):396-404.
Levine ME, Gillis MG, Koch SY, Voss AC, Stern RM, Koch KL. Protein and ginger for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea. J Altern Complement Med 2008 Jun;14(5): 545-551.
Pillai AK, Sharma KK, Gupta YK, Bakhshi S. Anti-emetic effect of ginger powder versus placebo as an add-on therapy in children and young adults receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2011 Feb;56(2):234-238.
Manusirivithaya S, Sripramote M, Tangjitgamol S, Sheanakul C, Leelahakorn S, Thavaramara T, Tangcharoenpanich K. Antiemetic effect of ginger in gynecologic oncology patients receiving cisplatin. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2004 Nov-Dec;14(6): 1063-1069.
Nakayama M, Okizaki A, Takahashi K. A randomized controlled trial for the effectiveness of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage following radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer. Biomed Res Intov 2016 N;2016:9509810.
Charalambous A, Lambrinou E, Katodritis N, Vomvas D, Raftopoulos V, Georgiou M, Paikousis L, Charalambous M. The effectiveness of thyme honey for the management of treatment-induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility randomized control trial. Eur J Oncol Nurs 2017 Apr;27:1-8.
Abdulrehman MA, Hamed AA, Mohamed SA, Hassanen NA. Effect of honey on febrile neutropenia in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a randomized crossover openlabeled study. Complement Ther Med 2016 Apr;25:98-103.
Francis M, Williams S. Effectiveness of Indian turmeric powder with honey as complementary therapy on oral mucositis: a nursing perspective among cancer patients in Mysore. Nurs J India 2014 Nov-Dec;105(6):258-260.
Raeessi MA, Raeessi N, Panahi Y, Gharaie H, Davoudi SM, Saadat A, Karimi Zarchi AA, Raeessi F, Ahmadi SM, Jalalian H. “Coffee plus honey” versus “topical steroid” in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014 Aug;14:293.
Hawley P, Hovan A, McGahan CE, Saunders D. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of manuka honey for radiation-induced oral mucositis. Support Care Cancer 2014 Mar;22(3):751-761.
Maiti PK, Ray A, Mitra TN, Jana U, Bhattacharya J, Ganguly S. The effect of honey on mucositis induced by chemoradiation in head and neck cancer. J Indian Med Assoc 2012 Jul;110(7):453-456.
Abdulrehman M, Elbarbary NS, Ahmed Amin D, Saeid Ebrahim R. Honey and a mixture of honey, beeswax, and olive oil-propolis extract in treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomized controlled pilot study. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2012 Apr;29(3):285-292.
Lund-Nielsen B, Adamsen L, Kolmos HJ, Rørth M, Tolver A, Gottrup F. The effect of honey-coated bandages compared with silver-coated bandages on treatment of malignant woundsa randomized study. Wound Repair Regen 2011 Nov;19(6): 664-670.
Lund-Nielsen B, Adamsen L, Gottrup F, Rorth M, Tolver A, Kolmos HJ. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds–a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings. Ostomy Wound Manage 2011 Jul;57(7):28-36.
Bardy J, Molassiotis A, Ryder WD, Mais K, Sykes A, Yap B, Lee L, Kaczmarski E, Slevin N. A double-blind, placebocontrolled, randomised trial of active manuka honey and standard oral care for radiation-induced oral mucositis. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012 Apr;50(3):221-226.
Shoma A, Eldars W, Noman N, Saad M, Elzahaf E, Abdalla M, Eldin DS, Zayed D, Shalaby A, Malek HA. Pentoxifylline and local honey for radiation-induced burn following breast conservative surgery. Curr Clin Pharmacol 2010 Nov;5(4): 251-256.
Khanal B, Baliga M, Uppal N. Effect of topical honey on limitation of radiation-induced oral mucositis: an intervention study., Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010 Dec;39(12):1181-1185.
Rashad UM, Al-Gezawy SM, El-Gezawy E, Azzaz AN. Honey as topical prophylaxis against radiochemotherapy-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer. J Laryngol Otol 2009 Feb;123(2):223-228.
Zidan J, Shetver L, Gershuny A, Abzah A, Tamam S, Stein M, Friedman E. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia by special honey intake. Med Oncol 2006 Dec;23(4): 549-552.
Motallebnejad M, Akram S, Moghadamnia A, Moulana Z, Omidi S. The effect of topical application of pure honey on radiation-induced mucositis: a randomized clinical trial. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008 Mar;9(3):40-47.
Biswal BM, Zakaria A, Ahmad NM. Topical application of honey in the management of radiation mucositis: a preliminary study. Support Care Cancer 2003 Apr;11(4):242-248.
Palatty PL, Azmidah A, Rao S, Jayachander D, Thilakchand KR, Rai MP, Haniadka R, Simon P, Ravi R, Jimmy R, et al. Topical application of a sandal wood oil and turmeric based cream prevents radiodermatitis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy: a pilot study. Br J Radiol 2014 Jun;87(1038):20130490.
Rao S, Dinkar C, Vaishnav LK, Rao P, Rai MP, Fayad R, Baliga MS. The Indian spice turmeric delays and mitigates radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer: an investigational study. Integr Cancer Ther 2014 May;13(3):201-210.
Francis M et al. Effectiveness of Indian Turmeric Powder with Honey as Complementary Therapy on Oral Mucositis: A Nursing Perspective among Cancer Patients in Mysore. Nurs J India. 2014 Nov-Dec; 105(6):258-260.
Ghalaut VS, Sangwan L, Dahiya K, Ghalaut PS, Dhankhar R, Saharan R. Effect of imatinib therapy with and without turmeric powder on nitric oxide levels in chronic myeloid leukemia. J Oncol Pharm Pract 2012 Jun;18(2):186-190.
Saxena A, Dixit S, Aggarwal S, Seenu V, Prashad R, Bhushan SM, Tranikanti V, Misra MC, Srivastava A. An Ayurvedic herbal compound to reduce toxicity to cancer chemotherapy: a randomized controlled trial. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol 2008 Jan;29(2):11.
Ravindran D, Hariharan I, Muwonge R, Kumar RR, Radhakrishna Pillai M, Ramadas K. Efficacy of Varunadi Ghritha (Polyherbal compound) in treated head and neck cancer cases as a biological response modifier. Ayu 2014 Apr-Jun;35(2):168-174.
El-Ghiaty MA, Ibrahim OM, Abdou SM, Hussein FZ. Evaluation of the protective effect of Cystone against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in cancer patients, and its influence on cisplatin antitumor activity. Int Urol Nephrol 2014 Jul;46(7):1367-1373.
Acharya DK, Kulkarni KS. Supportive treatment with herbal remedies along with external irradiation in cancer cervix patients (a review of 108 cancer cervix patients). Antiseptic 2002 Aug:99(8):299-301.
Saksena AK, Verma SK, Agarwal KK. A clinical trial of Geri forte as an antistress agent in cancer patients. J Res Educ Indian Med 1988 Jan-Mar;7(1):101-104.
Prasad, GC. Ayurvedic drugs in the management of cancer. New Delhi: Central Council for Research Ayurveda & Siddha; 1999.
Sabharwal P, Dinkar Sarma M, Agarwal DP. Effect of intervention of Ayurveda and Practical implementation of Shadchakras (Pranic Healing) An indigenous approach as co- therapy with Chemotherapy & Radiotherapy for physical & mental wellbeing of cancer patients – a clinical study. J Ayurveda 2008 Oct-Dec;2(4).
Deshmukh V, Kulkarni A, Bhargava S, Patil T, Ramdasi V, Gangal S, Godse V, Datar S, Gujar S, Sardeshmukh S. Effectiveness of combinations of Ayurvedic Drugs in alleviating drug toxicity and improving quality of life of cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Support Care Cancer 2014 Nov;22(11):3007-3015.
Das D, Agarwal SK, Chandola HM. Protective effect of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) against side effects of radiation/chemotherapy in head and neck malignancies. Ayu 2011 Apr;32(2):196-199.
Biswal BM, Sulaiman SA, Ismail HC, Zakaria H, Musa KI. Effect of Withaniasomnifera (Ashwagandha) on the development of chemotherapy-induced fatigue and quality of life in breast cancer patients. Integr Cancer Ther 2013 Jul;12(4): 312-322.
Biswal BM, Sulaiman AM, Ismail HC, Zakaria H, Jalil Abdul MI, Muhammad KI. Phase II clinical study of combination chemotherapy with herb Withaniasomnifera (Ashwagandha) in breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 2012 Apr;48(4):S8-S9.
Vyas P, Thakar AB, Baghel MS, Sisodia A, Deole Y. Efficacy of Rasayana Avaleha as adjuvant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in reducing adverse effects. Ayu 2010 Oct;31(4): 417-423.
Gupta S, Kushwaha HK, Jhunjhunwala A, Agarwal DP. Taming the side effects of radiotherapy in oral carcinoma patients with help of Ayurvedic Medicine (Clinical Study). J Ayurveda 2008 Oct-Dec;2(4).
Broca A, Sharma UC, Kushwaha HK, Sharma SS, Agarwal DP, Chauguley A. Evaluation of Clinical Response of Carcinolyt (Herbal Nutrients) to control adverse effects of radiotherapy in cancer patients. J Ayurveda 2007 Jan-Mar;1(1).
Ramesh PR, Kumar KS, Rajagopal MR, Balachandran P, Warrier PK. Managing morphine-induced constipation: a controlled comparison of an Ayurvedic formulation and senna. J Pain Symptom Manage 1998 Oct;16(4):240-244.
Joseph CD, Praveenkumar V, Kuttan G, Kuttan R. Myeloprotective effect of a non-toxic indigenous preparation Rasayana in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and radiation therapy. A pilot study. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 1999 Sep;18(3):325-329.
Vaidya, ADB.; Amonkar, AJ.; Bhatt, NS.; Parikh, PM. Complementary and alternative medicine for cancer care in India: basic and clinical perspective. In: Alaoui-Jamali M, editor. Semecarpusanacardium: clinical studies, alternative and complementary therapies for cancer. New York: Springer;2010.
Das S, Das MC, Paul R. Swarna Bhasma in cancer: a prospective clinical study. Ayu 2012 Jul;33(3):365-367.
Pal SK, Fatima SH, Kalandar A. Effect of poly herbal preparation HUMA on oral cancer: two case reports. Int J Med Sci Biotechnol 2013 Aug;1(1):65-70.
Sharma SK. Effect of Arogyawardhani on liver function after cholecystectomy in the case of cholecystolithiasis, choledocholithiasis and carcinoma gall bladder. JREIM 1991;10(2): 19-28.
Mahanta V, Dudhamal TS, Gupta SK. Management of Arbuda (cancer) with herbomineral formulation – a pilot study. GJRMI 2013 May;2(5):374-379.
Lapedis M, Adler SR, Hecht FM, Miaskowski C, Agarawal S, Kaptchuk TJ, Abrams DI, Lad VD, Dhruva A. Qualitative analyses from a prospective clinical study of a whole systems ayurvedic intervention for breast cancer survivorship. J Altern Complement Med 2014 May;20(5):A75.
Prakash B, Parikh PM, Pal SK. Herbo-mineral Ayurvedic treatment in a high risk acute promyelocytic leukemia patient with second relapse: 12 years follow up. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2010 Jul;1(3):215-218.
Prakash B. Treatment of relapsed undifferentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0) with Ayurvedic therapy. Int J Ayurveda Res 2011 Jan-Mar;2(1):56-59.
Bendale Y, Bendale V, Ladsongikar K, Birari-Gawande P, Kadam A, Gund P. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma successfully treated with rasayana therapy – a case report. Rasamruta 2015 Mar;7(6):1-5.
Bendale Y, Bendale V, Ladsongikar K, Birari-Gawande P, Kadam A, Gund P. Prognostic significance after use of Rasayana therapy in a colon cancer patient–a case report. Rasamruta 2015 Apr;7(6):1-5.
Jayawardhane ND, De Silva RH, Tripathi JS, Narasimha Murthy KH, Tiwari SK. An effective herbomineral treatment as an adjuvant therapy for the improvement of quality of life of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) patient: a case report. Int Res J Pharma 2012 Jul;3(7):266-270.
Saxena RC, Trivedi VP, Tripathi R, Tewari SP, Tewari A, Tiwari BD, Srivastava A. Non Hodgkins Lymphoma: a rare tumour of Nasal Mucosa treated with LAS-01.IJAMY 2013 Apr-Jun;6(2):79-82.
Kalender ME, Comez G, Sevinc A, Dirier A, Camci C. Leech therapy for symptomatic relief of cancer pain. Pain Med 2010 Mar;11(3):443-445.
Rathi R, Rathi B. A case report of acute lymphoblastic leukemia – an ayurvedic approach. Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci 2014 Feb;3(3):48-51.
Shukla S, Bharti AC, Hussain S, Mahata S, Hedau S, Kailash U, Kashyap V, Bhambhani S, Roy M, Batra S, et al. Elimination of high-risk human papillomavirus type HPV16 infection by 'Praneem' polyherbal tablet in women with early cervical intraepithelial lesions. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2009 Dec;135(12):1701-1709.
Talwar GP, Sharma R, Singh S, Das BC, Bharti AC, Sharma K, Singh P, Atrey N, Gupta JC. BASANT, a polyherbal safe microbicide eliminates HPV-16 in women with early cervical intraepithelial lesions. J Cancer Ther 2015 Dec;6(14):1163-1166.
Joshi JV, Paradkar PH, Jagtap SS, Agashe SV, Soman G, Vaidya AB. Chemopreventive potential and safety profile of a curcuma longa extract in women with cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011 12(12):3305-3311.
Deshpande A, Tandon S, Deshpande N. Low resource screening method of precancerous lesions and its reversal by Triphala in teenage Indian population. Ayu 2014 Apr- Jun;35(2):160-167.
Srivastava A, Agarwal R, Chaturvedi TP, Chandra A, Singh OP. Clinical evaluation of the role of tulsi and turmeric in the management of oral submucous fibrosis: A pilot, prospective observational study. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2015 Jan-Mar;6(1):45-49.
Patel KR, Rajagopala M, Vaghela DB, Shah A. A pilot study on Ayurvedic management of oral sub mucous fibrosis. Ayu 2015 Nov;36(1):34-40.
Gutknecht N, et al. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop of Evidence Based Dentistry on Lasers in Dentistry. Quintessence Publishing Co. Ltd. 2007.
Ishii J, Fujita K, Komori T. Laser surgery as a treatment for oral leukoplakia. Oral Oncol 2003;39(8):759-69.
Katzir A. Lasers and optical fibers in medicine. Academic Press, Inc, San Diego-Boston 1993.
Nathan MI, Dumke WP, Burns G, Dill Jr FH, Lasher G. Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-n junctions. Appl Phys Lett 1962;1(3):62-64.
Prahl SA. Optical absorption of hemoglobin. Oregon Medical Laser Center: http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/ index.html
Strassl M, Kassenbacher A, Wintner E. Ultrashort laser pulses in dentistry. J Oral Laser Appl 2002;2(4):213-22.
Stabholz A, Zeltzser R, Sela M, Peretz B, Moshonov J, Ziskind D. The use of lasers in dentistry: Principles of operation and clinical applications. Compend 2003;24:811-24.
Kreisler M, Daublander M, Willershausen-Zonnchen B, d‘Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the survival rate of gingival fibroblast cell cultures. Laser Surg Med 2001a;28(5):445-50.
Rastegar S, Jacques SL, Motamedi M, Kim BM. Theoretical analysis of equivalency of high- power diode laser and Nd:YAG laser for coagulation. Lasers in Dentistry, SPIE 1646:150-60, 1992.
Theodoro LH, Haypek P, Bachmann L, Garcia VG, Sampaio JE, Zezell DM, Eduardo C de P. Effect of Er:YAG and diode laser irradiation on the root surface: Morphological and thermal analysis. J Periodontol 2003;74(6):838-43.
White JM, Gekelman D, Shin K, Park X, Swenson T, Rouse B, Tran K, Bullard S, Scott- Beckles B, Oto MJSB, Yamamoto A. Laser interaction with dental soft tissues: What do we know from our years of applied scientific research? Lasers in Dentistry, SPIE 2002;4610:39-48.
Adams TC, Pang PK. Lasers in Aesthetic Dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:833-60.
Bach G, Neckel C, Mall C, Krekeler G. Conventional versus laser- assisted therapy of peri-implantitis: A five year comparative study. Implant Dent 2000;9:247-51.
Clayman L, Kuo PC. Soft tissue excision techniques. In Clayman L, Kuo P. Lasers in Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry. Thieme Publ, Stuttgart 1997;63-83.
Convissar RA, Diamond LB, Fazekas CD. Laser treatment of orthodontically induced gingival hyperplasia. Gen Dent 1996;44(1):47-51.
Goharkay K, Moritz A, Wilder-Smith P, Schoop U, Kluger W, Jakolitsch S, Sperr W. Effects on oral soft tissue produced by a diode laser in vitro. J Oral Surg 1978;36:932-37.
Olbricht SM, Stern RS, Tang SV, Noe JM, Arndt KA. Complications of cutaneous laser surgery: A survey. Arch Dermatol 1987;123(3):345-49.
Pinheiro AL, Limeira Jr FA, Gerbi MEM, Ramalho LMP. Effect of 830 nm laser light on the repair of bone defects grafted with inorganic bovine bone and decalciûed cortical osseous membrane. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2003;21(6):383-88.
Romanos GE. Atlas der chirurgischen Laserzahnheilkunde. Urban und Fischer Verlag, München 1999.
Romanos GE, Nentwig GH. Present and future of lasers in oral soft tissue surgery: Clinical applications. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1996;14(4):179-84.
Strauss RA. Laser management of discrete lesions. In : Laser applications in oral maxillofacial surgery. (Eds) Catone G A, Alling C C, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1997
White JM, Goodis HE, Horton J, Gold S. Current status of lasers in soft tissue dental surgery. J Periodontol 1994;65(7):733-35.
Yousuf A, Hossain M, Nakamura Y, Yamada Y, Kinoshita J, Matsumoto K. Removal of gingival melanin pigmentation with the semiconductor diode laser: A case report. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2000;18:263-66.
Zeinoun T, Nammour S, Dourov N, Aftimos G, Luomanen M. Myofibroblasts in healing laser excision wounds. Lasers Surg Med 2001;28:74-79.
Al-Watban FA, Zhang XY. The comparison of effects between pulsed and CW lasers on wound healing. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2004;22(1):15-18.
Gutknecht N, Gogswaardt D, Conrads G, Apel C, Schubert C, Lampert F. Diode laser radiation and its bactericidal effect in root canal wall dentin. J Clin Las Med Surg 2000;57:57-60.
Parkins F. Lasers in pediatric and adolescent dentistry. Dent Clin N Amer 2000;44:821-30.
Santaella MR, Braun A, Matson E, Frentzen M. Effect of diode laser and fluoride varnish on initial surface demineralisation of primary dentition enamel: An in vitro study. Int J Paed Dent 2004;14:199-203.
Tuner J, Hode L. The laser therapy handbook. Grängesberg 2004;231.
Gherlone EF, Maiorana C, Grassi RF, Ciancaglini R, Cattoni F. The use of 980 nm diode and 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser for gingival retraction in fixed prostheses. J Oral Laser Applications 2004;4:183-90.
Glauche CE, de Freitas PM, Vieira ND, Marques JL. Qualitative microanalysis of ions and ultrastructuralchanges in dentin exposed to laser irradiation. Lasers Surg Med 2005;36(4): 334-39.
Gutknecht N, Zimmermann R, Lampert F. Lasers in periodontology: State of the art. J Oral Laser Applications 2001a;1:169-79.
Kreisler M, Haj HA, d‘Hoedt B. Clinical efficacy of semiconductor laser application as an adjunct to conventional scaling and root planning. Lasers Surg Med 2005;37:350-55.
Mester E, Spiry T, Szende B, Tota JG. Effect of laser rays on wound healing. Am J Surg 1971;22:532-35.
Patruta S, Franz A, Beer F, Goharkhay K, Sperr W, Moritz A. In vitro stimulatory effect of diode laser on the secretion of tissue inhibitor of matrix mealloproteinases 1(TIMP-1) in human gingival fibroblast: A preliminary report. J Oral Laser Applications 2004;4(3):167-70.
Silveira LB, Silveira JB, Ribeiro MS, Garrocho AA, Novelli MD, Marigo H, Growth EB, et al. In vivo study on mast cells behavior following low intensity visible and near infrared laser radiation (abstract 304). Lasers Surg Med 2002;82.
Bach G, Koch HK, Hellerich U, Venzke T. Konventionelle Diodenlaser versus Hochpulstechnik. Laser Journal 1/2008:18-20.
Deppe H, Horch HH. Laseranwendungen in der chirurgischen Zahn-,Mund-und Kieferheilkunde. Laser Zahnheilkunde 2007;4:219-22.
Horch HH, Deppe H. Laser anwendungen im Mund-Kiefer- Gesichtsbereich. In Horch HH: Mund-Kiefer-Gesichtschirurgie. München: Elsevier 2007;797-820.
Roodenburg JL, Witjes MJ, deVeld DC; Tan IB, Nauta JM: Lasers in dentistry. Use of lasers in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2002;109:470.
Maiorana C, Salina S. Oral soft tissue pathologies: Long-term evaluation after laser treatment. J Oral Laser Appl 2001;1:20.
Crippa R. Report on 103 cases of precancerous and other oral lesions treated with a diode laser. J Oral Laser Appl 2001;1:26.
Bach G. Er:YAG versus Diode-Zwei Wellenlängen made in Baden-Württemberg. Laser Zahnheilkunde 2007;4:283-87.
Andersen K. Laser technology- a surgical tool of the past, present and future. Aorn J 2003;78:794-802.
Eichler J, Schneeweiss-Wolter C. Wirkung von Laserstrahlung auf Gewebe. MTA 1999;14:255.
McKenzie AL. Physics of thermal processes in laser- tissue interaction. Phys Med Biol 1990;35:1175-209.
Sullins KE. Diode laser and endoscopic laser surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2002;32:639-648.
Svaasand LO, Boerslid T, Oeveraasen M. Thermal and optical properties of living tissue: Application to laser-induced hyperthermia. Lasers Surg Med 1985;5:589-602.
Welch AJ, Motamedi M, Rastegar S, LeCarpentier GL, Jansen D. Laser thermal ablation. Photochem. Photobiol 1991;53: 815-23.
Lippert BM, et al. Wound healing after laser treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Lasers Med Sci. 2003;18(1):36-42.
Grossenbacher R. Laser surgery in the oral cavity. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1992;10(1):19-21.
Guttenberg SA, Emery RW. Laser resurfacing and oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Dermatol. Surg 1999;25(6):519.
Coleton S. Laser treatment of atypical oral pigmentation. A case report. NY State Dent J 2006;72(2):22-23.
Damante CA, et al. Histomorphometric study of the healing of human oral mucosa after gingivoplasty and low-level laser therapy. Lasers Surg Med 2004;35(5):377-84.
Eichler J, Eichler HJ. Laser. Springer Verlag, Berlin- Heidelberg- New York 1991.
Manni J. Surgical diode lasers. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1992;10: 377-80.
Pick RM, Powel GL. Lasers in dentistry, soft tissue procedures. Dent Clin North Am 1993;37:281-97.
Scherer H, Fuhere A, Hopf J. Current status of laser surgery of benign diseases in the area of soft palate. Laryngol Rhinol Otol 1994;73:14-18.
Morita T, Okamura Y, Ookub K, et al. A new instrument for hemostatic vascular management in endoscopic surgery: Diode laser(STATLaser-SDL) and it‘s hand piece (Dual Hook). J Clin Laser Med Surg 1999;17:57-61.
Claus PN. Comparative study on CW mode versus pulsed mode in AlGaAs diode lasers. SPIE Proc 2001;4249:44-49.
Krause F, Frentzen M. Dioden- Laser in der zahnmedizinischen Anwendung. DGL Zeitschrift für Laserzahnheilkunde 2007;3/ 07:151-58.
Coluzzi DJ. Lasers and soft tissue curettage: An update. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2002;23:1104-111.
Schwarz F, Sculean A, Berakdar M, Szathmari L, Geoerg T, Becker J. In vivo and in vitro effects of an Er:YAG laser, a diode laser, and scaling and root-planning on periodontally diseased root surfaces: A comparative histologic study. Lasers Surg Med 2003;32:359-66.
Fontana CR, Kurachi C, Mendonca CR, Bagnato VS. Temperature variation at soft periodontal and rat bone tissue during a medium- power diode laser exposure. Photomed Lasres Surg 2004;22:519-22.
Borrajo JL, Varela LG, Castro LG, Rodriguez-Nunez I, Torreira MG: Diode laser (980 nm) as an adjunct to scaling and root planning. Photomed Laser Surg 2004;22:509-12.
Kreisler M, Al Haj H, Daublander M, Gotz H, Duschner H, Willershausen B, D‘Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on root surface in vitro. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2002;20:63-69.
Meister J, Franzen R. Dentale Lasersysteme Teil II: Der Dioden- Laser. DGL Zeitschrift für Laserzahnheilkunde 2007;3/07: 185-89.
Alam T, Dawasaz AA, Thukral N, Jangam D. Surgical diode laser excision for peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma: A case report and literature review. J Oral Laser Applications 2008;8:43- 49.
Convissar RA. An overview of laser wavelength used in dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 2000;44:753-765.
Kreisler M, Meier C, Stender E, Daubländer M, Willershausen- Zönnchen B, de Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the attachment rate of periodontal ligament cells: An in vitro study. J Periodontol Oct 2001;72(10):1312-17.
Black P. Der Dentallaser in der oralen Chirurgie-Masterthese- Teil2 Laser Journal 1/2007: 16-21, 2007 146. Van Hillegersberg R: Fundamentals of Laser Surgery Eur J Surg Jan 1997;163(1): 3-12.
Haina D, Landthaler M, Braun-Falco O, Waidelich W. Comparison of the maximum coagulation depth in human skin for different types of medical lasers. Lasers Surg Med 1987;7(4): 355-62.
Sullins KE. Diode laser and endoscopic laser surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract May 2002;32(3):639-48.
McKenzie AL. Physics of thermal processes in laser-tissue interaction. Phys Med Biol Sep 1990;35(9):1175-209.
Reinisch L. Laser physics and tissue interaction. Otolaryngol Clin North Am Dec 1996;29(6):893-914.
Coluzzi DJ. Fundamentals of dental lasers: Science and instruments. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:751-70.
Maiorana C, Salina S. Versatility of superpulsed diode laser in oral surgery: A clinical report. J Oral Laser Appl 2006;6: 193-99.