Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 2 ( 2017 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Medicinal Plants of Chandauli and Obra Forests of Uttar Pradesh

Rama Shankar, Sanjeev K Lale, Rajesh K Mudaiya

Citation Information : Shankar R, Lale SK, Mudaiya RK. Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Medicinal Plants of Chandauli and Obra Forests of Uttar Pradesh. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2017; 2 (2):49-63.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10059-0008

License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Published Online: 00-06-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aims: This article deals with the pharmaceutically important medicinal plants from Obra and Chandauli forest divisions of Uttar Pradesh. Exploration of the two adjoining forest divisions has been carried out during 2014 and 2017. The study was conducted to prepare records of medicinal plants in the study areas. Outcome of the study: During exploration, records of pharmaceutically important medicinal plants with its Global Positioning System (GPS) and potential in the field were taken. The important medicinal plants, such as Aegle marmelos, Bacopa monnieri, Boswellia serrata, Celastrus paniculata, Centella asiatica, Desmodium gangeticum, Gymnema sylvestris, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Oroxylum indicum, Solanum nigrum, and Terminalia tomentosa were recorded, which can be undertaken for mass cultivation by the farmers by adding some other medicinal plants having commercial value, viz. Aloe barbadensis and Withania somnifera. Conclusion: The study area is widely occupied by plants of Holarrhena antidysenterica and Woodfordia fruticosa for commercialization, whereas plants of Oroxylum indicum, Gymnema sylvestre, Butea superba, etc., need conservation in the habitat.


PDF Share
  1. Chopra, RN.; Nayar, SL.; Chopra, IC. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants (reprint 2009). New Delhi: NISCAIR, CSIR; 1956.
  2. Duthie, JF. Flora of Upper Gangetic plain and of the adjacent Shivalik and Sub-Himalayan Tract, (Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta). Reprinted: Jain SK. 2003 Medicinal plants. New Delhi: NBT; 1960.
  3. Jain, SK.; Rao, RR. A handbook of field and herbarium methods. New Delhi: Today & Tomorrow Printers and Publishers;1967.p.33-58.
  4. Khare, CP. Indian medicinal plants an illustrated dictionary CIMAP. New York: Springer; 2007.
  5. Kirtikar, KR.; Basu, BD. Indian medicinal plants. Allahabad: Lalit Mohan Basu; 1934-1940.
  6. Kumar A, Tewari DD, Pande YN. Indigenous and traditional herbal medicines from Gonda district of Tarai belt of North- Eastern UP, India. J Natcon 2003;15(1):261-268.
  7. Kumar A, Tewari DD, Tripathi S. Folk-botany of an obnoxious weed Lantana sps in Tarai belt of North-Eastern U.P. Vegetos 2003;16:21-26.
  8. Kumar A, Tewari DD, Sharma R, Pandey VC. Practices of folk phytoveterinary in Devipatan Division, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Natcon 2005;17(1):153-161.
  9. Mitra Roma. Therapeutic terms used in medico botany. In: Jain SK, editor. Method and approaches in ethnobotany. Lucknow: Society of Ethnobotanists; 1989.
  10. Muthu C, Ayyanar M, Raja N, Ignacimuthu S. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2006 Oct;2:43.
  11. Pande YN, Patel KK, Shivani. Studies on weeds used as medicinal plants by Tharu tribe of Nepal Tarai belt of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. J Liv World 1998;5(2):1-4.
  12. Pandey HP, Verma BK, Narain S. Ethnoveterinary plants of Gonda region, UP, India. J Econ Tax Bot 1999;23(1)199-203.
  13. Singh KK, Maheshwari JK. Traditional herbal remedies among the Tharus of Baharaich district, UP, India. Ethnobotany 1989;1:51-56.
  14. Singh NK, Singh DP. Ethnobotanical survey of Balrampur. Flora Fauna 2001;7(2):59-66.
  15. Shukla AN, Srivastava S. Rawat AKS. A survey of Traditional medicinal plants of Uttar Pradesh (India) – used in treatment of infectious diseases. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):24-36.
  16. Cakilcioglua U, Khatun S, Turkoglu I, Hayta S. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Maden (Elazig- Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol 2011 Sep;137(1):469-486.
  17. Maurya SK, Seth A, Singh Gautam DN, Singh AK. Biodiversity and Indigenous Uses of Medicinal Plant in the Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandauli District, Uttar Pradesh. Int J Biodivers 2015 Mar;2015:1-11.
  18. Pandey, VN.; Uniyal, MR.; Tiwari, RN. Medico-ethnobotany of Sonbhadra district. New Delhi: CCRAS; 1993.
  19. Singh AK, Raghubanshi AS, Singh JS. Medical ethnobotany of the tribals of Sonaghati of Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Ethnopharmacol 2002 Jun;81(1):31-41.
  20. Singh A, Singh GS, Singh PK. Medico-ethno botanical inventory of Renukoot forest division of district Sonbhadra, Uttar Pradesh, India. Indian J Nat Prod Res 2012 Sep;3(3): 448-457.
  21. Singh PK, Vinod K, Tiwari RK, Sharma A, Rao CV, Singh RH. Medico-ethnobotany of ‘Chatara’ block of district Sonbhadra, Uttar Pradesh, India. Adv Biol Res 2010;4(1):65-80.
  22. Singh PK, Tiwari RK, Singh RH. Medicinal plants used by tribal inhabitants of ‘Nagwa’ block of district Sonbhadra, Uttar Pradesh, India. Vegetos 2010;23(2):86-104.
  23. Rao, RR. Methods and techniques in ethnobotanical study and research some basic consideration. In: Jain SK, editor. Method and approaches in ethnobotany. Lucknow: Society of Ethnobotanists; 1989. p. 13-23.
  24. Sharma PV. Classical uses of medicinal plants. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Visvabharti; 2004.
  25. Welsh J, McClelland M. Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucleic Acids Res 1990 Dec;18(24):7213-7218.
  26. Micheli MR, Bova R, Pascale E, D Ambrosio E. Reproducible DNA fingerprinting with the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Nucleic Acids Res 1994 May;22(10):1921-1922.
  27. Jagtap C, Prajapati P, Patgiri B, Shukla V, Quality control parameters for Tamra (copper) Bhasma, Ancient Sci. of life, April-June 2012; Vol.31(4) : 168-169.
  28. Allen, TM. and Cullis, P.R. Drug delivery systems: entering the mainstream. Science, 2004 ; 303: 1818-1822.
  29. Emerich, D.F. and Thanos, C.G., The pinpoint promise of nanoparticle-based drug delivery and molecular diagnosis. Biomol. Eng., 2006; 23 : 171-184.
  30. Sudhaldev M, Jha CB, Physicochemical characterization of Ayurvedic bhasma: An approach to standardization, IJAR, April-June 2010; 1 (2): 85.
  31. Bhatt Apoorva M, A comparative pharmaceutico- clinical study of Praval pisti and Praval bhasma in special reference of management of hyperacidity, G.A.U., 2003.
  32. http/www.foreverliving.net.com 02/03/2010.
  33. Piyush Gupta, VK Pant, Editors, Essential Paediatrics of OP Gai, 6th ed, CBS Publishers; 2005, p 119.
  34. Mishra Brahma Shankar (2005): Bhavaprakasha Samhita. Part- 2. Chaukhambha Sasnskrit Sansthan, Varanasi.
  35. Anonymous (1993). Shaligrama Nighantu Bhushana, Bruhat Nighantu Ratnakar Part 7-8, by Shri Shaligramvaishyavarya. Khemaraja Shrikrishnadas Prakashana, Mumbai.
  36. Anonymous (2005). Brihat yoga tarangini, Bharatbhaishajyaratnakara, edited by Nagindas Chhaganlal Shah, B Jain Publishers, New Delhi.
  37. Shodhala (2003). Gada nigraha, With Hindi commentary ‘Vidyotani’ by Shri Indradev Tripathi. edited by Shri Gangasahay Pandey. Chaukhambha Sanskrit prakashan,Varanasi.
  38. Bhishagvara Krishnashashtri navare (2011): Nighantu Ratnakara. Chaukhmbha Sanskrit Pratishthan, Delhi.
  39. Acharya Anantadev Soori (2003). Rasachintamani. Translated by Prof. Siddhinandana Mishra. Chaukhamba publishers, Varanasi.
  40. Bhisgvara Jananachandra Sharma (2003). Rasakaumudi. Edited by Sri Bhahmasankar Mishra. Chaukhamba bharati academy, Varanasi.
  41. Anonymous (2005). Brihat yoga tarangini, Bharatbhaishajyaratnakara, edited by Nagindas Chhaganlal Shah. B Jain Publishers, New Delhi.
  42. Acharya Yashodhara (1998). Rasaprakashasudhakara. Translated by Siddhinandana Mishra. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi.
  43. Anonymous (2005). Brihat yoga tarangini, Bharatbhaishajyaratnakara, edited by Nagindas Chhaganlal Shah. B Jain Publishers, New Delhi.
  44. Ambikadatta Shastri (2010): Rasaratnasamuchhaya. Chaukhamba amarabharati Prakashana, Varanasi.
  45. Siddha Nityanatha (2001). Rasaratnakara. Hindi commentary by Lt. Lala Shalagramaji Khemraj Shrikrishnadas Prakashana, Mumbai.
  46. Anonymous (2005). Brihat yoga tarangini, Bharatbhaishajyaratnakara, edited by Nagindas Chhaganlal Shah. B Jain Publishers, New Delhi.
  47. Kayastha camunda (2005). Rasa Sanketa Kalika. English translated by Uttam Vaidya and Prammi Satyagraha Sastry. Chowkhambha Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi.
  48. Sadananda sharma (2009). Rasa tarangini, edited by Kashinath shastri, Motilal banarasidas publishers, New delhi.
  49. Datto Balllal Borkar (1983). Rasachandanshu. Shri Gajanan Book Depo, Pune.
  50. Sri Chudamani Mishra (1999). Rasakamdhenu. “Suvivrtti” hindi commentary by Sri Gulraj Sharma Mishra and Vd. Santosh Kumar Sharma. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi.
  51. Acharya Shalinath: Rasamanjari. Siddhiprada hindi translated by Prof. Siddhinandan Mishra (2003). Chaukhamba Orientalia,Varanasi.
  52. Trayambakanath sharma (2001). Rasamrita. Choukhambha Sanskrit series office, Varanasi.
  53. Shyamsundaracharya Vaishya (2005). Rasayanasara. Chokhamba Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi.
  54. Vaidya Pandit Hari prapannaji (2010). Rasayogasagara with Sanskrit and English introduction & Notes. Vol. 1, Choukhambha Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi.
  55. Acharya Dhundhuknath (2000). Rasendrachintamani with ‘Siddhiprada’ commentary. Hindi translated by Prof. Siddhinandan Mishra. Chaukhamba orientalia, Varanasi.
  56. Ramatej Pandey and Neelakantha Mishra (2000). Rasendrasara samgraha with Rasayani hindi commentary. Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratisthana, Delhi.
  57. Anonymous (2004). Sahasrayoga, Sanskrit-Hindi-English anuvada, transaleted by Dr. Ramnivas Sharma and Dr. Surendra Sharma, Reprint edition. Chaukhmbha Sanskrit Pratisthana, Delhi.
  58. Vangasena (2009). Vangasenasamhita, with ‘Hari’ commentary by Pandit Hariharaprasad Trivedi, 1st edition. Chaukhambha Sanskrita Series Office, Varanasi.
  59. Acharya Madhav (2007). Vrinda madhav, edited and translated by Premvati tewari, 1st edition. Chaukhambha Visvabharati, Varanasi.
  60. Shri Trimalla Bhatt (1956). Yogatarangini samhita, edited by Acharya Shri Shricharantirth Maharaj, The Rasashala Aushadhashrama, Gondal.
  61. Trimalla Bhatta (2003). Yogatarangini, Chaukhamba Vidya Bhavana, Varanasi.
  62. Anonymous (2008). Yogaratnakar with ‘Vidyotini’ Hindi commentary by VaidyaLakshmipati Shastri, edited by Brahmashankara Shastri. Chaukhambha Prakashan, Varanasi.
  63. Anonymous: Ayurvedic Formulary of India, part-1. New Delhi. Government of India, Ministry of health and family welfare, Dept. of Indian system of medicine & Homoeopathy, The Controller of publications.;1978
  64. Baron M, Haas R, Baron W, Mailath-Pokorny G. Peri-implant bone loss as a function of tooth-implant distance. Int J Prosthodont 2005;18:427-33.
  65. Dvorak G, Arnhart C, Heuberer S, Huber CD, Watzek G, Gruber R. Peri-implantitis and late implant failures in postmenopausal women: A cross-sectional study. J Clin Periodontol 2011;38: 950-55.
  66. Shabestari GO, Shayesteh YS, Khojasteh A, Alikhasi M, Moslemi N, Aminian A, et al. Implant placement in patients with oral bisphosphonate therapy: A case series. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2010; 12:175-80.
  67. Serino G, Turri A. Extent and location of bone loss at dental implants in patients with peri-implantitis. J Biomech 2011; 11:267-71.
  68. Renvert S, Polyzois I, Maguire R. Reosseointegration on previously contaminated surfaces: A systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res Sep 2009;20(Suppl 4):216-27.
  69. Niemz MH. Laser-tissue interactions-fundamentals and applications. Auage, Springer Verlag, Berlin-New York, 2003;45-149.
  70. Walsh LJ. The current status of laser applications in dentistry. Aust Dent J, 2003;48:146-55.
  71. Welch AJ. The thermal response of laser irradiated tissue. IEEE J Quant Electron 1984;20:1471-81.
  72. Gutknecht N, et al. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop of Evidence Based Dentistry on Lasers in Dentistry. Quintessence Publishing Co. Ltd. 2007.
  73. Duck FA. Physical properties of tissue. Academic Press London- Toronto, 1990.
  74. Ishii J, Fujita K, Komori T. Laser surgery as a treatment for oral leukoplakia. Oral Oncol 2003;39(8):759-69.
  75. Katzir A. Lasers and optical fibers in medicine. Academic Press, Inc, San Diego-Boston 1993.
  76. Nathan MI, Dumke WP, Burns G, Dill Jr FH, Lasher G. Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-n junctions. Appl Phys Lett 1962;1(3):62-64.
  77. Prahl SA. Optical absorption of hemoglobin. Oregon Medical Laser Center: http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/ index.html
  78. Strassl M, Kassenbacher A, Wintner E. Ultrashort laser pulses in dentistry. J Oral Laser Appl 2002;2(4):213-22.
  79. Stabholz A, Zeltzser R, Sela M, Peretz B, Moshonov J, Ziskind D. The use of lasers in dentistry: Principles of operation and clinical applications. Compend 2003;24:811-24.
  80. Kreisler M, Daublander M, Willershausen-Zonnchen B, d‘Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the survival rate of gingival fibroblast cell cultures. Laser Surg Med 2001a;28(5):445-50.
  81. Rastegar S, Jacques SL, Motamedi M, Kim BM. Theoretical analysis of equivalency of high- power diode laser and Nd:YAG laser for coagulation. Lasers in Dentistry, SPIE 1646:150-60, 1992.
  82. Theodoro LH, Haypek P, Bachmann L, Garcia VG, Sampaio JE, Zezell DM, Eduardo C de P. Effect of Er:YAG and diode laser irradiation on the root surface: Morphological and thermal analysis. J Periodontol 2003;74(6):838-43.
  83. White JM, Gekelman D, Shin K, Park X, Swenson T, Rouse B, Tran K, Bullard S, Scott- Beckles B, Oto MJSB, Yamamoto A. Laser interaction with dental soft tissues: What do we know from our years of applied scientific research? Lasers in Dentistry, SPIE 2002;4610:39-48.
  84. Adams TC, Pang PK. Lasers in Aesthetic Dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:833-60.
  85. Bach G, Neckel C, Mall C, Krekeler G. Conventional versus laser- assisted therapy of peri-implantitis: A five year comparative study. Implant Dent 2000;9:247-51.
  86. Clayman L, Kuo PC. Soft tissue excision techniques. In Clayman L, Kuo P. Lasers in Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry. Thieme Publ, Stuttgart 1997;63-83.
  87. Convissar RA, Diamond LB, Fazekas CD. Laser treatment of orthodontically induced gingival hyperplasia. Gen Dent 1996;44(1):47-51.
  88. Goharkay K, Moritz A, Wilder-Smith P, Schoop U, Kluger W, Jakolitsch S, Sperr W. Effects on oral soft tissue produced by a diode laser in vitro. J Oral Surg 1978;36:932-37.
  89. Olbricht SM, Stern RS, Tang SV, Noe JM, Arndt KA. Complications of cutaneous laser surgery: A survey. Arch Dermatol 1987;123(3):345-49.
  90. Pinheiro AL, Limeira Jr FA, Gerbi MEM, Ramalho LMP. Effect of 830 nm laser light on the repair of bone defects grafted with inorganic bovine bone and decalciûed cortical osseous membrane. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2003;21(6):383-88.
  91. Romanos GE. Atlas der chirurgischen Laserzahnheilkunde. Urban und Fischer Verlag, München 1999.
  92. Romanos GE, Nentwig GH. Present and future of lasers in oral soft tissue surgery: Clinical applications. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1996;14(4):179-84.
  93. Strauss RA. Laser management of discrete lesions. In : Laser applications in oral maxillofacial surgery. (Eds) Catone G A, Alling C C, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1997
  94. White JM, Goodis HE, Horton J, Gold S. Current status of lasers in soft tissue dental surgery. J Periodontol 1994;65(7):733-35.
  95. Yousuf A, Hossain M, Nakamura Y, Yamada Y, Kinoshita J, Matsumoto K. Removal of gingival melanin pigmentation with the semiconductor diode laser: A case report. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2000;18:263-66.
  96. Zeinoun T, Nammour S, Dourov N, Aftimos G, Luomanen M. Myofibroblasts in healing laser excision wounds. Lasers Surg Med 2001;28:74-79.
  97. Al-Watban FA, Zhang XY. The comparison of effects between pulsed and CW lasers on wound healing. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2004;22(1):15-18.
  98. Gutknecht N, Gogswaardt D, Conrads G, Apel C, Schubert C, Lampert F. Diode laser radiation and its bactericidal effect in root canal wall dentin. J Clin Las Med Surg 2000;57:57-60.
  99. Parkins F. Lasers in pediatric and adolescent dentistry. Dent Clin N Amer 2000;44:821-30.
  100. Santaella MR, Braun A, Matson E, Frentzen M. Effect of diode laser and fluoride varnish on initial surface demineralisation of primary dentition enamel: An in vitro study. Int J Paed Dent 2004;14:199-203.
  101. Tuner J, Hode L. The laser therapy handbook. Grängesberg 2004;231.
  102. Gherlone EF, Maiorana C, Grassi RF, Ciancaglini R, Cattoni F. The use of 980 nm diode and 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser for gingival retraction in fixed prostheses. J Oral Laser Applications 2004;4:183-90.
  103. Glauche CE, de Freitas PM, Vieira ND, Marques JL. Qualitative microanalysis of ions and ultrastructuralchanges in dentin exposed to laser irradiation. Lasers Surg Med 2005;36(4): 334-39.
  104. Gutknecht N, Zimmermann R, Lampert F. Lasers in periodontology: State of the art. J Oral Laser Applications 2001a;1:169-79.
  105. Kreisler M, Haj HA, d‘Hoedt B. Clinical efficacy of semiconductor laser application as an adjunct to conventional scaling and root planning. Lasers Surg Med 2005;37:350-55.
  106. Mester E, Spiry T, Szende B, Tota JG. Effect of laser rays on wound healing. Am J Surg 1971;22:532-35.
  107. Patruta S, Franz A, Beer F, Goharkhay K, Sperr W, Moritz A. In vitro stimulatory effect of diode laser on the secretion of tissue inhibitor of matrix mealloproteinases 1(TIMP-1) in human gingival fibroblast: A preliminary report. J Oral Laser Applications 2004;4(3):167-70.
  108. Silveira LB, Silveira JB, Ribeiro MS, Garrocho AA, Novelli MD, Marigo H, Growth EB, et al. In vivo study on mast cells behavior following low intensity visible and near infrared laser radiation (abstract 304). Lasers Surg Med 2002;82.
  109. Bach G, Koch HK, Hellerich U, Venzke T. Konventionelle Diodenlaser versus Hochpulstechnik. Laser Journal 1/2008:18-20.
  110. Deppe H, Horch HH. Laseranwendungen in der chirurgischen Zahn-,Mund-und Kieferheilkunde. Laser Zahnheilkunde 2007;4:219-22.
  111. Horch HH, Deppe H. Laser anwendungen im Mund-Kiefer- Gesichtsbereich. In Horch HH: Mund-Kiefer-Gesichtschirurgie. München: Elsevier 2007;797-820.
  112. Roodenburg JL, Witjes MJ, deVeld DC; Tan IB, Nauta JM: Lasers in dentistry. Use of lasers in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2002;109:470.
  113. Maiorana C, Salina S. Oral soft tissue pathologies: Long-term evaluation after laser treatment. J Oral Laser Appl 2001;1:20.
  114. Crippa R. Report on 103 cases of precancerous and other oral lesions treated with a diode laser. J Oral Laser Appl 2001;1:26.
  115. Bach G. Er:YAG versus Diode-Zwei Wellenlängen made in Baden-Württemberg. Laser Zahnheilkunde 2007;4:283-87.
  116. Andersen K. Laser technology- a surgical tool of the past, present and future. Aorn J 2003;78:794-802.
  117. Eichler J, Schneeweiss-Wolter C. Wirkung von Laserstrahlung auf Gewebe. MTA 1999;14:255.
  118. McKenzie AL. Physics of thermal processes in laser- tissue interaction. Phys Med Biol 1990;35:1175-209.
  119. Sullins KE. Diode laser and endoscopic laser surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2002;32:639-648.
  120. Svaasand LO, Boerslid T, Oeveraasen M. Thermal and optical properties of living tissue: Application to laser-induced hyperthermia. Lasers Surg Med 1985;5:589-602.
  121. Welch AJ, Motamedi M, Rastegar S, LeCarpentier GL, Jansen D. Laser thermal ablation. Photochem. Photobiol 1991;53: 815-23.
  122. Lippert BM, et al. Wound healing after laser treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Lasers Med Sci. 2003;18(1):36-42.
  123. Grossenbacher R. Laser surgery in the oral cavity. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1992;10(1):19-21.
  124. Guttenberg SA, Emery RW. Laser resurfacing and oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Dermatol. Surg 1999;25(6):519.
  125. Coleton S. Laser treatment of atypical oral pigmentation. A case report. NY State Dent J 2006;72(2):22-23.
  126. Damante CA, et al. Histomorphometric study of the healing of human oral mucosa after gingivoplasty and low-level laser therapy. Lasers Surg Med 2004;35(5):377-84.
  127. Eichler J, Eichler HJ. Laser. Springer Verlag, Berlin- Heidelberg- New York 1991.
  128. Manni J. Surgical diode lasers. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1992;10: 377-80.
  129. Pick RM, Powel GL. Lasers in dentistry, soft tissue procedures. Dent Clin North Am 1993;37:281-97.
  130. Scherer H, Fuhere A, Hopf J. Current status of laser surgery of benign diseases in the area of soft palate. Laryngol Rhinol Otol 1994;73:14-18.
  131. Morita T, Okamura Y, Ookub K, et al. A new instrument for hemostatic vascular management in endoscopic surgery: Diode laser(STATLaser-SDL) and it‘s hand piece (Dual Hook). J Clin Laser Med Surg 1999;17:57-61.
  132. Claus PN. Comparative study on CW mode versus pulsed mode in AlGaAs diode lasers. SPIE Proc 2001;4249:44-49.
  133. Krause F, Frentzen M. Dioden- Laser in der zahnmedizinischen Anwendung. DGL Zeitschrift für Laserzahnheilkunde 2007;3/ 07:151-58.
  134. Coluzzi DJ. Lasers and soft tissue curettage: An update. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2002;23:1104-111.
  135. Dederich DN. Laser curettage: An overview. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2002;23:1097-103.
  136. Schwarz F, Sculean A, Berakdar M, Szathmari L, Geoerg T, Becker J. In vivo and in vitro effects of an Er:YAG laser, a diode laser, and scaling and root-planning on periodontally diseased root surfaces: A comparative histologic study. Lasers Surg Med 2003;32:359-66.
  137. Fontana CR, Kurachi C, Mendonca CR, Bagnato VS. Temperature variation at soft periodontal and rat bone tissue during a medium- power diode laser exposure. Photomed Lasres Surg 2004;22:519-22.
  138. Gold SJ, Vilardi MA. Pulsed laser beam effect on gingiva. J Clin Periodontol 1994;21(6):391-96.
  139. Borrajo JL, Varela LG, Castro LG, Rodriguez-Nunez I, Torreira MG: Diode laser (980 nm) as an adjunct to scaling and root planning. Photomed Laser Surg 2004;22:509-12.
  140. Kreisler M, Al Haj H, Daublander M, Gotz H, Duschner H, Willershausen B, D‘Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on root surface in vitro. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2002;20:63-69.
  141. Meister J, Franzen R. Dentale Lasersysteme Teil II: Der Dioden- Laser. DGL Zeitschrift für Laserzahnheilkunde 2007;3/07: 185-89.
  142. Alam T, Dawasaz AA, Thukral N, Jangam D. Surgical diode laser excision for peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma: A case report and literature review. J Oral Laser Applications 2008;8:43- 49.
  143. Convissar RA. An overview of laser wavelength used in dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 2000;44:753-765.
  144. Kreisler M, Meier C, Stender E, Daubländer M, Willershausen- Zönnchen B, de Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the attachment rate of periodontal ligament cells: An in vitro study. J Periodontol Oct 2001;72(10):1312-17.
  145. Black P. Der Dentallaser in der oralen Chirurgie-Masterthese- Teil2 Laser Journal 1/2007: 16-21, 2007 146. Van Hillegersberg R: Fundamentals of Laser Surgery Eur J Surg Jan 1997;163(1): 3-12.
  146. Haina D, Landthaler M, Braun-Falco O, Waidelich W. Comparison of the maximum coagulation depth in human skin for different types of medical lasers. Lasers Surg Med 1987;7(4): 355-62.
  147. Sullins KE. Diode laser and endoscopic laser surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract May 2002;32(3):639-48.
  148. McKenzie AL. Physics of thermal processes in laser-tissue interaction. Phys Med Biol Sep 1990;35(9):1175-209.
  149. Reinisch L. Laser physics and tissue interaction. Otolaryngol Clin North Am Dec 1996;29(6):893-914.
  150. Coluzzi DJ. Fundamentals of dental lasers: Science and instruments. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:751-70.
  151. Maiorana C, Salina S. Versatility of superpulsed diode laser in oral surgery: A clinical report. J Oral Laser Appl 2006;6: 193-99.
  152. Gold SI, Villardi MA. Pulsed laser beam effects on gingiva. J Clin Periodontol 1994;21:391-96.
  153. Kamp M Halbleiterlaser. Vorlesung WS 2006, Technische Physik, Uni Würzburg 2006.
  154. Schäfer O. Die Entwicklung des Diodenlasers bis zur Digitalpulstechnik. Laser Journal 2/2008:6-7.
  155. Nanami T, Shiba H, Ikeuchi S, Nagai T, Asanami S, Shibata T. Clinical applications and basic studies of laser in dentistry and oral surgery. Keio J Med Dec.1993;42(4):199-201.
PDF Share